Sergey Levine

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Assistant Professor at UC Berkeley

  • Online Meta-Learning

    A central capability of intelligent systems is the ability to continuously build upon previous experiences to speed up and enhance learning of new tasks. Two distinct research paradigms have studied this question. Meta-learning views this problem as learning a prior over model parameters that is amenable for fast adaptation on a new task, but typically assumes the set of tasks are available together as a batch. In contrast, online (regret based) learning considers a sequential setting in which problems are revealed one after the other, but conventionally train only a single model without any task-specific adaptation. This work introduces an online meta-learning setting, which merges ideas from both the aforementioned paradigms to better capture the spirit and practice of continual lifelong learning. We propose the follow the meta leader algorithm which extends the MAML algorithm to this setting. Theoretically, this work provides an O( T) regret guarantee with only one additional higher order smoothness assumption in comparison to the standard online setting. Our experimental evaluation on three different large-scale tasks suggest that the proposed algorithm significantly outperforms alternatives based on traditional online learning approaches.

    02/22/2019 ∙ by Chelsea Finn, et al. ∙ 54 share

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  • Efficient Off-Policy Meta-Reinforcement Learning via Probabilistic Context Variables

    Deep reinforcement learning algorithms require large amounts of experience to learn an individual task. While in principle meta-reinforcement learning (meta-RL) algorithms enable agents to learn new skills from small amounts of experience, several major challenges preclude their practicality. Current methods rely heavily on on-policy experience, limiting their sample efficiency. The also lack mechanisms to reason about task uncertainty when adapting to new tasks, limiting their effectiveness in sparse reward problems. In this paper, we address these challenges by developing an off-policy meta-RL algorithm that disentangles task inference and control. In our approach, we perform online probabilistic filtering of latent task variables to infer how to solve a new task from small amounts of experience. This probabilistic interpretation enables posterior sampling for structured and efficient exploration. We demonstrate how to integrate these task variables with off-policy RL algorithms to achieve both meta-training and adaptation efficiency. Our method outperforms prior algorithms in sample efficiency by 20-100X as well as in asymptotic performance on several meta-RL benchmarks.

    03/19/2019 ∙ by Kate Rakelly, et al. ∙ 32 share

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  • Learning to Walk via Deep Reinforcement Learning

    Deep reinforcement learning suggests the promise of fully automated learning of robotic control policies that directly map sensory inputs to low-level actions. However, applying deep reinforcement learning methods on real-world robots is exceptionally difficult, due both to the sample complexity and, just as importantly, the sensitivity of such methods to hyperparameters. While hyperparameter tuning can be performed in parallel in simulated domains, it is usually impractical to tune hyperparameters directly on real-world robotic platforms, especially legged platforms like quadrupedal robots that can be damaged through extensive trial-and-error learning. In this paper, we develop a stable variant of the soft actor-critic deep reinforcement learning algorithm that requires minimal hyperparameter tuning, while also requiring only a modest number of trials to learn multilayer neural network policies. This algorithm is based on the framework of maximum entropy reinforcement learning, and automatically trades off exploration against exploitation by dynamically and automatically tuning a temperature parameter that determines the stochasticity of the policy. We show that this method achieves state-of-the-art performance on four standard benchmark environments. We then demonstrate that it can be used to learn quadrupedal locomotion gaits on a real-world Minitaur robot, learning to walk from scratch directly in the real world in two hours of training.

    12/26/2018 ∙ by Tuomas Haarnoja, et al. ∙ 30 share

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  • Grasp2Vec: Learning Object Representations from Self-Supervised Grasping

    Well structured visual representations can make robot learning faster and can improve generalization. In this paper, we study how we can acquire effective object-centric representations for robotic manipulation tasks without human labeling by using autonomous robot interaction with the environment. Such representation learning methods can benefit from continuous refinement of the representation as the robot collects more experience, allowing them to scale effectively without human intervention. Our representation learning approach is based on object persistence: when a robot removes an object from a scene, the representation of that scene should change according to the features of the object that was removed. We formulate an arithmetic relationship between feature vectors from this observation, and use it to learn a representation of scenes and objects that can then be used to identify object instances, localize them in the scene, and perform goal-directed grasping tasks where the robot must retrieve commanded objects from a bin. The same grasping procedure can also be used to automatically collect training data for our method, by recording images of scenes, grasping and removing an object, and recording the outcome. Our experiments demonstrate that this self-supervised approach for tasked grasping substantially outperforms direct reinforcement learning from images and prior representation learning methods.

    11/16/2018 ∙ by Eric Jang, et al. ∙ 26 share

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  • Generalization through Simulation: Integrating Simulated and Real Data into Deep Reinforcement Learning for Vision-Based Autonomous Flight

    Deep reinforcement learning provides a promising approach for vision-based control of real-world robots. However, the generalization of such models depends critically on the quantity and variety of data available for training. This data can be difficult to obtain for some types of robotic systems, such as fragile, small-scale quadrotors. Simulated rendering and physics can provide for much larger datasets, but such data is inherently of lower quality: many of the phenomena that make the real-world autonomous flight problem challenging, such as complex physics and air currents, are modeled poorly or not at all, and the systematic differences between simulation and the real world are typically impossible to eliminate. In this work, we investigate how data from both simulation and the real world can be combined in a hybrid deep reinforcement learning algorithm. Our method uses real-world data to learn about the dynamics of the system, and simulated data to learn a generalizable perception system that can enable the robot to avoid collisions using only a monocular camera. We demonstrate our approach on a real-world nano aerial vehicle collision avoidance task, showing that with only an hour of real-world data, the quadrotor can avoid collisions in new environments with various lighting conditions and geometry. Code, instructions for building the aerial vehicles, and videos of the experiments can be found at github.com/gkahn13/GtS

    02/11/2019 ∙ by Katie Kang, et al. ∙ 22 share

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  • Variational Discriminator Bottleneck: Improving Imitation Learning, Inverse RL, and GANs by Constraining Information Flow

    Adversarial learning methods have been proposed for a wide range of applications, but the training of adversarial models can be notoriously unstable. Effectively balancing the performance of the generator and discriminator is critical, since a discriminator that achieves very high accuracy will produce relatively uninformative gradients. In this work, we propose a simple and general technique to constrain information flow in the discriminator by means of an information bottleneck. By enforcing a constraint on the mutual information between the observations and the discriminator's internal representation, we can effectively modulate the discriminator's accuracy and maintain useful and informative gradients. We demonstrate that our proposed variational discriminator bottleneck (VDB) leads to significant improvements across three distinct application areas for adversarial learning algorithms. Our primary evaluation studies the applicability of the VDB to imitation learning of dynamic continuous control skills, such as running. We show that our method can learn such skills directly from raw video demonstrations, substantially outperforming prior adversarial imitation learning methods. The VDB can also be combined with adversarial inverse reinforcement learning to learn parsimonious reward functions that can be transferred and re-optimized in new settings. Finally, we demonstrate that VDB can train GANs more effectively for image generation, improving upon a number of prior stabilization methods.

    10/01/2018 ∙ by Xue Bin Peng, et al. ∙ 20 share

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  • Model-Based Reinforcement Learning for Atari

    Model-free reinforcement learning (RL) can be used to learn effective policies for complex tasks, such as Atari games, even from image observations. However, this typically requires very large amounts of interaction -- substantially more, in fact, than a human would need to learn the same games. How can people learn so quickly? Part of the answer may be that people can learn how the game works and predict which actions will lead to desirable outcomes. In this paper, we explore how video prediction models can similarly enable agents to solve Atari games with orders of magnitude fewer interactions than model-free methods. We describe Simulated Policy Learning (SimPLe), a complete model-based deep RL algorithm based on video prediction models and present a comparison of several model architectures, including a novel architecture that yields the best results in our setting. Our experiments evaluate SimPLe on a range of Atari games and achieve competitive results with only 100K interactions between the agent and the environment (400K frames), which corresponds to about two hours of real-time play.

    03/01/2019 ∙ by Łukasz Kaiser, et al. ∙ 20 share

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  • Extending Deep Model Predictive Control with Safety Augmented Value Estimation from Demonstrations

    Reinforcement learning (RL) for robotics is challenging due to the difficulty in hand-engineering a dense cost function, which can lead to unintended behavior, and dynamical uncertainty, which makes it hard to enforce constraints during learning. We address these issues with a new model-based reinforcement learning algorithm, safety augmented value estimation from demonstrations (SAVED), which uses supervision that only identifies task completion and a modest set of suboptimal demonstrations to constrain exploration and learn efficiently while handling complex constraints. We derive iterative improvement guarantees for SAVED under known stochastic nonlinear systems. We then compare SAVED with 3 state-of-the-art model-based and model-free RL algorithms on 6 standard simulation benchmarks involving navigation and manipulation and 2 real-world tasks on the da Vinci surgical robot. Results suggest that SAVED outperforms prior methods in terms of success rate, constraint satisfaction, and sample efficiency, making it feasible to safely learn complex maneuvers directly on a real robot in less than an hour. For tasks on the robot, baselines succeed less than 5 over 75

    05/31/2019 ∙ by Brijen Thananjeyan, et al. ∙ 19 share

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  • InfoBot: Transfer and Exploration via the Information Bottleneck

    A central challenge in reinforcement learning is discovering effective policies for tasks where rewards are sparsely distributed. We postulate that in the absence of useful reward signals, an effective exploration strategy should seek out decision states. These states lie at critical junctions in the state space from where the agent can transition to new, potentially unexplored regions. We propose to learn about decision states from prior experience. By training a goal-conditioned policy with an information bottleneck, we can identify decision states by examining where the model actually leverages the goal state. We find that this simple mechanism effectively identifies decision states, even in partially observed settings. In effect, the model learns the sensory cues that correlate with potential subgoals. In new environments, this model can then identify novel subgoals for further exploration, guiding the agent through a sequence of potential decision states and through new regions of the state space.

    01/30/2019 ∙ by Anirudh Goyal, et al. ∙ 18 share

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  • Wasserstein Dependency Measure for Representation Learning

    Mutual information maximization has emerged as a powerful learning objective for unsupervised representation learning obtaining state-of-the-art performance in applications such as object recognition, speech recognition, and reinforcement learning. However, such approaches are fundamentally limited since a tight lower bound of mutual information requires sample size exponential in the mutual information. This limits the applicability of these approaches for prediction tasks with high mutual information, such as in video understanding or reinforcement learning. In these settings, such techniques are prone to overfit, both in theory and in practice, and capture only a few of the relevant factors of variation. This leads to incomplete representations that are not optimal for downstream tasks. In this work, we empirically demonstrate that mutual information-based representation learning approaches do fail to learn complete representations on a number of designed and real-world tasks. To mitigate these problems we introduce the Wasserstein dependency measure, which learns more complete representations by using the Wasserstein distance instead of the KL divergence in the mutual information estimator. We show that a practical approximation to this theoretically motivated solution, constructed using Lipschitz constraint techniques from the GAN literature, achieves substantially improved results on tasks where incomplete representations are a major challenge.

    03/28/2019 ∙ by Sherjil Ozair, et al. ∙ 18 share

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  • Skew-Fit: State-Covering Self-Supervised Reinforcement Learning

    In standard reinforcement learning, each new skill requires a manually-designed reward function, which takes considerable manual effort and engineering. Self-supervised goal setting has the potential to automate this process, enabling an agent to propose its own goals and acquire skills that achieve these goals. However, such methods typically rely on manually-designed goal distributions, or heuristics to force the agent to explore a wide range of states. We propose a formal exploration objective for goal-reaching policies that maximizes state coverage. We show that this objective is equivalent to maximizing the entropy of the goal distribution together with goal reaching performance, where goals correspond to entire states. We present an algorithm called Skew-Fit for learning such a maximum-entropy goal distribution, and show that under certain regularity conditions, our method converges to a uniform distribution over the set of possible states, even when we do not know this set beforehand. Skew-Fit enables self-supervised agents to autonomously choose and practice diverse goals. Our experiments show that it can learn a variety of manipulation tasks from images, including opening a door with a real robot, entirely from scratch and without any manually-designed reward function.

    03/08/2019 ∙ by Vitchyr H. Pong, et al. ∙ 16 share

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