Pierre Sermanet

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  • Wasserstein Dependency Measure for Representation Learning

    Mutual information maximization has emerged as a powerful learning objective for unsupervised representation learning obtaining state-of-the-art performance in applications such as object recognition, speech recognition, and reinforcement learning. However, such approaches are fundamentally limited since a tight lower bound of mutual information requires sample size exponential in the mutual information. This limits the applicability of these approaches for prediction tasks with high mutual information, such as in video understanding or reinforcement learning. In these settings, such techniques are prone to overfit, both in theory and in practice, and capture only a few of the relevant factors of variation. This leads to incomplete representations that are not optimal for downstream tasks. In this work, we empirically demonstrate that mutual information-based representation learning approaches do fail to learn complete representations on a number of designed and real-world tasks. To mitigate these problems we introduce the Wasserstein dependency measure, which learns more complete representations by using the Wasserstein distance instead of the KL divergence in the mutual information estimator. We show that a practical approximation to this theoretically motivated solution, constructed using Lipschitz constraint techniques from the GAN literature, achieves substantially improved results on tasks where incomplete representations are a major challenge.

    03/28/2019 ∙ by Sherjil Ozair, et al. ∙ 18 share

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  • Temporal Cycle-Consistency Learning

    We introduce a self-supervised representation learning method based on the task of temporal alignment between videos. The method trains a network using temporal cycle consistency (TCC), a differentiable cycle-consistency loss that can be used to find correspondences across time in multiple videos. The resulting per-frame embeddings can be used to align videos by simply matching frames using the nearest-neighbors in the learned embedding space. To evaluate the power of the embeddings, we densely label the Pouring and Penn Action video datasets for action phases. We show that (i) the learned embeddings enable few-shot classification of these action phases, significantly reducing the supervised training requirements; and (ii) TCC is complementary to other methods of self-supervised learning in videos, such as Shuffle and Learn and Time-Contrastive Networks. The embeddings are also used for a number of applications based on alignment (dense temporal correspondence) between video pairs, including transfer of metadata of synchronized modalities between videos (sounds, temporal semantic labels), synchronized playback of multiple videos, and anomaly detection. Project webpage: https://sites.google.com/view/temporal-cycle-consistency .

    04/16/2019 ∙ by Debidatta Dwibedi, et al. ∙ 2 share

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  • Unsupervised Perceptual Rewards for Imitation Learning

    Reward function design and exploration time are arguably the biggest obstacles to the deployment of reinforcement learning (RL) agents in the real world. In many real-world tasks, designing a reward function takes considerable hand engineering and often requires additional sensors to be installed just to measure whether the task has been executed successfully. Furthermore, many interesting tasks consist of multiple implicit intermediate steps that must be executed in sequence. Even when the final outcome can be measured, it does not necessarily provide feedback on these intermediate steps. To address these issues, we propose leveraging the abstraction power of intermediate visual representations learned by deep models to quickly infer perceptual reward functions from small numbers of demonstrations. We present a method that is able to identify key intermediate steps of a task from only a handful of demonstration sequences, and automatically identify the most discriminative features for identifying these steps. This method makes use of the features in a pre-trained deep model, but does not require any explicit specification of sub-goals. The resulting reward functions can then be used by an RL agent to learn to perform the task in real-world settings. To evaluate the learned reward, we present qualitative results on two real-world tasks and a quantitative evaluation against a human-designed reward function. We also show that our method can be used to learn a real-world door opening skill using a real robot, even when the demonstration used for reward learning is provided by a human using their own hand. To our knowledge, these are the first results showing that complex robotic manipulation skills can be learned directly and without supervised labels from a video of a human performing the task. Supplementary material and data are available at https://sermanet.github.io/rewards

    12/20/2016 ∙ by Pierre Sermanet, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Attention for Fine-Grained Categorization

    This paper presents experiments extending the work of Ba et al. (2014) on recurrent neural models for attention into less constrained visual environments, specifically fine-grained categorization on the Stanford Dogs data set. In this work we use an RNN of the same structure but substitute a more powerful visual network and perform large-scale pre-training of the visual network outside of the attention RNN. Most work in attention models to date focuses on tasks with toy or more constrained visual environments, whereas we present results for fine-grained categorization better than the state-of-the-art GoogLeNet classification model. We show that our model learns to direct high resolution attention to the most discriminative regions without any spatial supervision such as bounding boxes, and it is able to discriminate fine-grained dog breeds moderately well even when given only an initial low-resolution context image and narrow, inexpensive glimpses at faces and fur patterns. This and similar attention models have the major advantage of being trained end-to-end, as opposed to other current detection and recognition pipelines with hand-engineered components where information is lost. While our model is state-of-the-art, further work is needed to fully leverage the sequential input.

    12/22/2014 ∙ by Pierre Sermanet, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Going Deeper with Convolutions

    We propose a deep convolutional neural network architecture codenamed "Inception", which was responsible for setting the new state of the art for classification and detection in the ImageNet Large-Scale Visual Recognition Challenge 2014 (ILSVRC 2014). The main hallmark of this architecture is the improved utilization of the computing resources inside the network. This was achieved by a carefully crafted design that allows for increasing the depth and width of the network while keeping the computational budget constant. To optimize quality, the architectural decisions were based on the Hebbian principle and the intuition of multi-scale processing. One particular incarnation used in our submission for ILSVRC 2014 is called GoogLeNet, a 22 layers deep network, the quality of which is assessed in the context of classification and detection.

    09/17/2014 ∙ by Christian Szegedy, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • OverFeat: Integrated Recognition, Localization and Detection using Convolutional Networks

    We present an integrated framework for using Convolutional Networks for classification, localization and detection. We show how a multiscale and sliding window approach can be efficiently implemented within a ConvNet. We also introduce a novel deep learning approach to localization by learning to predict object boundaries. Bounding boxes are then accumulated rather than suppressed in order to increase detection confidence. We show that different tasks can be learned simultaneously using a single shared network. This integrated framework is the winner of the localization task of the ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge 2013 (ILSVRC2013) and obtained very competitive results for the detection and classifications tasks. In post-competition work, we establish a new state of the art for the detection task. Finally, we release a feature extractor from our best model called OverFeat.

    12/21/2013 ∙ by Pierre Sermanet, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Pedestrian Detection with Unsupervised Multi-Stage Feature Learning

    Pedestrian detection is a problem of considerable practical interest. Adding to the list of successful applications of deep learning methods to vision, we report state-of-the-art and competitive results on all major pedestrian datasets with a convolutional network model. The model uses a few new twists, such as multi-stage features, connections that skip layers to integrate global shape information with local distinctive motif information, and an unsupervised method based on convolutional sparse coding to pre-train the filters at each stage.

    12/01/2012 ∙ by Pierre Sermanet, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Convolutional Neural Networks Applied to House Numbers Digit Classification

    We classify digits of real-world house numbers using convolutional neural networks (ConvNets). ConvNets are hierarchical feature learning neural networks whose structure is biologically inspired. Unlike many popular vision approaches that are hand-designed, ConvNets can automatically learn a unique set of features optimized for a given task. We augmented the traditional ConvNet architecture by learning multi-stage features and by using Lp pooling and establish a new state-of-the-art of 94.85 error improvement). Furthermore, we analyze the benefits of different pooling methods and multi-stage features in ConvNets. The source code and a tutorial are available at eblearn.sf.net.

    04/18/2012 ∙ by Pierre Sermanet, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Learning Actionable Representations from Visual Observations

    In this work we explore a new approach for robots to teach themselves about the world simply by observing it. In particular we investigate the effectiveness of learning task-agnostic representations for continuous control tasks. We extend Time-Contrastive Networks (TCN) that learn from visual observations by embedding multiple frames jointly in the embedding space as opposed to a single frame. We show that by doing so, we are now able to encode both position and velocity attributes significantly more accurately. We test the usefulness of this self-supervised approach in a reinforcement learning setting. We show that the representations learned by agents observing themselves take random actions, or other agents perform tasks successfully, can enable the learning of continuous control policies using algorithms like Proximal Policy Optimization (PPO) using only the learned embeddings as input. We also demonstrate significant improvements on the real-world Pouring dataset with a relative error reduction of 39.4 static attributes compared to the single-frame baseline. Video results are available at https://sites.google.com/view/actionablerepresentations .

    08/02/2018 ∙ by Debidatta Dwibedi, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Learning Latent Plans from Play

    We propose learning from teleoperated play data (LfP) as a way to scale up multi-task robotic skill learning. Learning from play (LfP) offers three main advantages: 1) It is cheap. Large amounts of play data can be collected quickly as it does not require scene staging, task segmenting, or resetting to an initial state. 2) It is general. It contains both functional and non-functional behavior, relaxing the need for a predefined task distribution. 3) It is rich. Play involves repeated, varied behavior and naturally leads to high coverage of the possible interaction space. These properties distinguish play from expert demonstrations, which are rich, but expensive, and scripted unattended data collection, which is cheap, but insufficiently rich. Variety in play, however, presents a multimodality challenge to methods seeking to learn control on top. To this end, we introduce Play-LMP, a method designed to handle variability in the LfP setting by organizing it in an embedding space. Play-LMP jointly learns 1) reusable latent plan representations unsupervised from play data and 2) a single goal-conditioned policy capable of decoding inferred plans to achieve user-specified tasks. We show empirically that Play-LMP, despite not being trained on task-specific data, is capable of generalizing to 18 complex user-specified manipulation tasks with average success of 85.5 individual models trained on expert demonstrations (success of 70.3 Furthermore, we find that play-supervised models, unlike their expert-trained counterparts, 1) are more robust to perturbations and 2) exhibit retrying-till-success. Finally, despite never being trained with task labels, we find that our agent learns to organize its latent plan space around functional tasks. Videos of the performed experiments are available at learning-from-play.github.io

    03/05/2019 ∙ by Corey Lynch, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Online Object Representations with Contrastive Learning

    We propose a self-supervised approach for learning representations of objects from monocular videos and demonstrate it is particularly useful in situated settings such as robotics. The main contributions of this paper are: 1) a self-supervising objective trained with contrastive learning that can discover and disentangle object attributes from video without using any labels; 2) we leverage object self-supervision for online adaptation: the longer our online model looks at objects in a video, the lower the object identification error, while the offline baseline remains with a large fixed error; 3) to explore the possibilities of a system entirely free of human supervision, we let a robot collect its own data, train on this data with our self-supervise scheme, and then show the robot can point to objects similar to the one presented in front of it, demonstrating generalization of object attributes. An interesting and perhaps surprising finding of this approach is that given a limited set of objects, object correspondences will naturally emerge when using contrastive learning without requiring explicit positive pairs. Videos illustrating online object adaptation and robotic pointing are available at: https://online-objects.github.io/.

    06/10/2019 ∙ by Sören Pirk, et al. ∙ 0 share

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