Zhen Li

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Research Scientist at Google

  • Feedback Network for Image Super-Resolution

    Recent advances in image super-resolution (SR) explored the power of deep learning to achieve a better reconstruction performance. However, the feedback mechanism, which commonly exists in human visual system, has not been fully exploited in existing deep learning based image SR methods. In this paper, we propose an image super-resolution feedback network (SRFBN) to refine low-level representations with high-level information. Specifically, we use hidden states in an RNN with constraints to achieve such feedback manner. A feedback block is designed to handle the feedback connections and to generate powerful high-level representations. The proposed SRFBN comes with a strong early reconstruction ability and can create the final high-resolution image step by step. In addition, we introduce a curriculum learning strategy to make the network well suitable for more complicated tasks, where the low-resolution images are corrupted by multiple types of degradation. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed SRFBN in comparison with the state-of-the-art methods. Code is avaliable at https://github.com/Paper99/SRFBN_CVPR19.

    03/23/2019 ∙ by Zhen Li, et al. ∙ 14 share

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  • Gated Multiple Feedback Network for Image Super-Resolution

    The rapid development of deep learning (DL) has driven single image super-resolution (SR) into a new era. However, in most existing DL based image SR networks, the information flows are solely feedforward, and the high-level features cannot be fully explored. In this paper, we propose the gated multiple feedback network (GMFN) for accurate image SR, in which the representation of low-level features are efficiently enriched by rerouting multiple high-level features. We cascade multiple residual dense blocks (RDBs) and recurrently unfolds them across time. The multiple feedback connections between two adjacent time steps in the proposed GMFN exploits multiple high-level features captured under large receptive fields to refine the low-level features lacking enough contextual information. The elaborately designed gated feedback module (GFM) efficiently selects and further enhances useful information from multiple rerouted high-level features, and then refine the low-level features with the enhanced high-level information. Extensive experiments demonstrate the superiority of our proposed GMFN against state-of-the-art SR methods in terms of both quantitative metrics and visual quality. Code is available at https://github.com/liqilei/GMFN.

    07/09/2019 ∙ by Qilei Li, et al. ∙ 5 share

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  • Semi-Supervised Video Salient Object Detection Using Pseudo-Labels

    Deep learning-based video salient object detection has recently achieved great success with its performance significantly outperforming any other unsupervised methods. However, existing data-driven approaches heavily rely on a large quantity of pixel-wise annotated video frames to deliver such promising results. In this paper, we address the semi-supervised video salient object detection task using pseudo-labels. Specifically, we present an effective video saliency detector that consists of a spatial refinement network and a spatiotemporal module. Based on the same refinement network and motion information in terms of optical flow, we further propose a novel method for generating pixel-level pseudo-labels from sparsely annotated frames. By utilizing the generated pseudo-labels together with a part of manual annotations, our video saliency detector learns spatial and temporal cues for both contrast inference and coherence enhancement, thus producing accurate saliency maps. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed semi-supervised method even greatly outperforms all the state-of-the-art fully supervised methods across three public benchmarks of VOS, DAVIS, and FBMS.

    08/12/2019 ∙ by Pengxiang Yan, et al. ∙ 2 share

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  • Knowledge Concentration: Learning 100K Object Classifiers in a Single CNN

    Fine-grained image labels are desirable for many computer vision applications, such as visual search or mobile AI assistant. These applications rely on image classification models that can produce hundreds of thousands (e.g. 100K) of diversified fine-grained image labels on input images. However, training a network at this vocabulary scale is challenging, and suffers from intolerable large model size and slow training speed, which leads to unsatisfying classification performance. A straightforward solution would be training separate expert networks (specialists), with each specialist focusing on learning one specific vertical (e.g. cars, birds...). However, deploying dozens of expert networks in a practical system would significantly increase system complexity and inference latency, and consumes large amounts of computational resources. To address these challenges, we propose a Knowledge Concentration method, which effectively transfers the knowledge from dozens of specialists (multiple teacher networks) into one single model (one student network) to classify 100K object categories. There are three salient aspects in our method: (1) a multi-teacher single-student knowledge distillation framework; (2) a self-paced learning mechanism to allow the student to learn from different teachers at various paces; (3) structurally connected layers to expand the student network capacity with limited extra parameters. We validate our method on OpenImage and a newly collected dataset, Entity-Foto-Tree (EFT), with 100K categories, and show that the proposed model performs significantly better than the baseline generalist model.

    11/21/2017 ∙ by Jiyang Gao, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Predicting membrane protein contacts from non-membrane proteins by deep transfer learning

    Computational prediction of membrane protein (MP) structures is very challenging partially due to lack of sufficient solved structures for homology modeling. Recently direct evolutionary coupling analysis (DCA) sheds some light on protein contact prediction and accordingly, contact-assisted folding, but DCA is effective only on some very large-sized families since it uses information only in a single protein family. This paper presents a deep transfer learning method that can significantly improve MP contact prediction by learning contact patterns and complex sequence-contact relationship from thousands of non-membrane proteins (non-MPs). Tested on 510 non-redundant MPs, our deep model (learned from only non-MPs) has top L/10 long-range contact prediction accuracy 0.69, better than our deep model trained by only MPs (0.63) and much better than a representative DCA method CCMpred (0.47) and the CASP11 winner MetaPSICOV (0.55). The accuracy of our deep model can be further improved to 0.72 when trained by a mix of non-MPs and MPs. When only contacts in transmembrane regions are evaluated, our method has top L/10 long-range accuracy 0.62, 0.57, and 0.53 when trained by a mix of non-MPs and MPs, by non-MPs only, and by MPs only, respectively, still much better than MetaPSICOV (0.45) and CCMpred (0.40). All these results suggest that sequence-structure relationship learned by our deep model from non-MPs generalizes well to MP contact prediction. Improved contact prediction also leads to better contact-assisted folding. Using only top predicted contacts as restraints, our deep learning method can fold 160 and 200 of 510 MPs with TMscore>0.6 when trained by non-MPs only and by a mix of non-MPs and MPs, respectively, while CCMpred and MetaPSICOV can do so for only 56 and 77 MPs, respectively. Our contact-assisted folding also greatly outperforms homology modeling.

    04/24/2017 ∙ by Zhen Li, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • A Flow Model of Neural Networks

    Based on a natural connection between ResNet and transport equation or its characteristic equation, we propose a continuous flow model for both ResNet and plain net. Through this continuous model, a ResNet can be explicitly constructed as a refinement of a plain net. The flow model provides an alternative perspective to understand phenomena in deep neural networks, such as why it is necessary and sufficient to use 2-layer blocks in ResNets, why deeper is better, and why ResNets are even deeper, and so on. It also opens a gate to bring in more tools from the huge area of differential equations.

    08/21/2017 ∙ by Zhen Li, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Protein Secondary Structure Prediction Using Cascaded Convolutional and Recurrent Neural Networks

    Protein secondary structure prediction is an important problem in bioinformatics. Inspired by the recent successes of deep neural networks, in this paper, we propose an end-to-end deep network that predicts protein secondary structures from integrated local and global contextual features. Our deep architecture leverages convolutional neural networks with different kernel sizes to extract multiscale local contextual features. In addition, considering long-range dependencies existing in amino acid sequences, we set up a bidirectional neural network consisting of gated recurrent unit to capture global contextual features. Furthermore, multi-task learning is utilized to predict secondary structure labels and amino-acid solvent accessibility simultaneously. Our proposed deep network demonstrates its effectiveness by achieving state-of-the-art performance, i.e., 69.7 benchmark CB513, 76.9 Our model and results are publicly available.

    04/25/2016 ∙ by Zhen Li, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Learning Gaussian Graphical Models Using Discriminated Hub Graphical Lasso

    We develop a new method called Discriminated Hub Graphical Lasso (DHGL) based on Hub Graphical Lasso (HGL) by providing prior information of hubs. We apply this new method in two situations: with known hubs and without known hubs. Then we compare DHGL with HGL using several measures of performance. When some hubs are known, we can always estimate the precision matrix better via DHGL than HGL. When no hubs are known, we use Graphical Lasso (GL) to provide information of hubs and find that the performance of DHGL will always be better than HGL if correct prior information is given and will seldom degenerate when the prior information is wrong.

    05/17/2017 ∙ by Zhen Li, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Accurate De Novo Prediction of Protein Contact Map by Ultra-Deep Learning Model

    Recently exciting progress has been made on protein contact prediction, but the predicted contacts for proteins without many sequence homologs is still of low quality and not very useful for de novo structure prediction. This paper presents a new deep learning method that predicts contacts by integrating both evolutionary coupling (EC) and sequence conservation information through an ultra-deep neural network formed by two deep residual networks. This deep neural network allows us to model very complex sequence-contact relationship as well as long-range inter-contact correlation. Our method greatly outperforms existing contact prediction methods and leads to much more accurate contact-assisted protein folding. Tested on three datasets of 579 proteins, the average top L long-range prediction accuracy obtained our method, the representative EC method CCMpred and the CASP11 winner MetaPSICOV is 0.47, 0.21 and 0.30, respectively; the average top L/10 long-range accuracy of our method, CCMpred and MetaPSICOV is 0.77, 0.47 and 0.59, respectively. Ab initio folding using our predicted contacts as restraints can yield correct folds (i.e., TMscore>0.6) for 203 test proteins, while that using MetaPSICOV- and CCMpred-predicted contacts can do so for only 79 and 62 proteins, respectively. Further, our contact-assisted models have much better quality than template-based models. Using our predicted contacts as restraints, we can (ab initio) fold 208 of the 398 membrane proteins with TMscore>0.5. By contrast, when the training proteins of our method are used as templates, homology modeling can only do so for 10 of them. One interesting finding is that even if we do not train our prediction models with any membrane proteins, our method works very well on membrane protein prediction. Finally, in recent blind CAMEO benchmark our method successfully folded 5 test proteins with a novel fold.

    09/02/2016 ∙ by Sheng Wang, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Towards Better Analysis of Deep Convolutional Neural Networks

    Deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have achieved breakthrough performance in many pattern recognition tasks such as image classification. However, the development of high-quality deep models typically relies on a substantial amount of trial-and-error, as there is still no clear understanding of when and why a deep model works. In this paper, we present a visual analytics approach for better understanding, diagnosing, and refining deep CNNs. We formulate a deep CNN as a directed acyclic graph. Based on this formulation, a hybrid visualization is developed to disclose the multiple facets of each neuron and the interactions between them. In particular, we introduce a hierarchical rectangle packing algorithm and a matrix reordering algorithm to show the derived features of a neuron cluster. We also propose a biclustering-based edge bundling method to reduce visual clutter caused by a large number of connections between neurons. We evaluated our method on a set of CNNs and the results are generally favorable.

    04/24/2016 ∙ by Mengchen Liu, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • LSTM-CF: Unifying Context Modeling and Fusion with LSTMs for RGB-D Scene Labeling

    Semantic labeling of RGB-D scenes is crucial to many intelligent applications including perceptual robotics. It generates pixelwise and fine-grained label maps from simultaneously sensed photometric (RGB) and depth channels. This paper addresses this problem by i) developing a novel Long Short-Term Memorized Context Fusion (LSTM-CF) Model that captures and fuses contextual information from multiple channels of photometric and depth data, and ii) incorporating this model into deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for end-to-end training. Specifically, contexts in photometric and depth channels are, respectively, captured by stacking several convolutional layers and a long short-term memory layer; the memory layer encodes both short-range and long-range spatial dependencies in an image along the vertical direction. Another long short-term memorized fusion layer is set up to integrate the contexts along the vertical direction from different channels, and perform bi-directional propagation of the fused vertical contexts along the horizontal direction to obtain true 2D global contexts. At last, the fused contextual representation is concatenated with the convolutional features extracted from the photometric channels in order to improve the accuracy of fine-scale semantic labeling. Our proposed model has set a new state of the art, i.e., 48.1 improvement) on the large-scale SUNRGBD dataset and the NYUDv2dataset, respectively.

    04/18/2016 ∙ by Zhen Li, et al. ∙ 0 share

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