Tim Rocktäschel

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Postdoctoral Researcher at University of Oxford; Junior Research Fellow at Jesus College, Stipendiary Lecturer at Hertford College, PhD from UCL; Deep & Reinforcement Learning, NLP

  • Stable Opponent Shaping in Differentiable Games

    A growing number of learning methods are actually games which optimise multiple, interdependent objectives in parallel -- from GANs and intrinsic curiosity to multi-agent RL. Opponent shaping is a powerful approach to improve learning dynamics in such games, accounting for the fact that the 'environment' includes agents adapting to one another's updates. Learning with Opponent-Learning Awareness (LOLA) is a recent algorithm which exploits this dynamic response and encourages cooperation in settings like the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma. Although experimentally successful, we show that LOLA can exhibit 'arrogant' behaviour directly at odds with convergence. In fact, remarkably few algorithms have theoretical guarantees applying across all differentiable games. In this paper we present Stable Opponent Shaping (SOS), a new method that interpolates between LOLA and a stable variant named LookAhead. We prove that LookAhead locally converges and avoids strict saddles in all differentiable games, the strongest results in the field so far. SOS inherits these desirable guarantees, while also shaping the learning of opponents and consistently either matching or outperforming LOLA experimentally.

    11/20/2018 ∙ by Alistair Letcher, et al. ∙ 74 share

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  • A Survey of Reinforcement Learning Informed by Natural Language

    To be successful in real-world tasks, Reinforcement Learning (RL) needs to exploit the compositional, relational, and hierarchical structure of the world, and learn to transfer it to the task at hand. Recent advances in representation learning for language make it possible to build models that acquire world knowledge from text corpora and integrate this knowledge into downstream decision making problems. We thus argue that the time is right to investigate a tight integration of natural language understanding into RL in particular. We survey the state of the field, including work on instruction following, text games, and learning from textual domain knowledge. Finally, we call for the development of new environments as well as further investigation into the potential uses of recent Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques for such tasks.

    06/10/2019 ∙ by Jelena Luketina, et al. ∙ 52 share

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  • Neural Variational Inference For Estimating Uncertainty in Knowledge Graph Embeddings

    Recent advances in Neural Variational Inference allowed for a renaissance in latent variable models in a variety of domains involving high-dimensional data. While traditional variational methods derive an analytical approximation for the intractable distribution over the latent variables, here we construct an inference network conditioned on the symbolic representation of entities and relation types in the Knowledge Graph, to provide the variational distributions. The new framework results in a highly-scalable method. Under a Bernoulli sampling framework, we provide an alternative justification for commonly used techniques in large-scale stochastic variational inference, which drastically reduce training time at a cost of an additional approximation to the variational lower bound. We introduce two models from this highly scalable probabilistic framework, namely the Latent Information and Latent Fact models, for reasoning over knowledge graph-based representations. Our Latent Information and Latent Fact models improve upon baseline performance under certain conditions. We use the learnt embedding variance to estimate predictive uncertainty during link prediction, and discuss the quality of these learnt uncertainty estimates. Our source code and datasets are publicly available online at https://github.com/alexanderimanicowenrivers/Neural-Variational-Knowledge-Graphs.

    06/12/2019 ∙ by Alexander I. Cowen-Rivers, et al. ∙ 1 share

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  • Adversarial Sets for Regularising Neural Link Predictors

    In adversarial training, a set of models learn together by pursuing competing goals, usually defined on single data instances. However, in relational learning and other non-i.i.d domains, goals can also be defined over sets of instances. For example, a link predictor for the is-a relation needs to be consistent with the transitivity property: if is-a(x_1, x_2) and is-a(x_2, x_3) hold, is-a(x_1, x_3) needs to hold as well. Here we use such assumptions for deriving an inconsistency loss, measuring the degree to which the model violates the assumptions on an adversarially-generated set of examples. The training objective is defined as a minimax problem, where an adversary finds the most offending adversarial examples by maximising the inconsistency loss, and the model is trained by jointly minimising a supervised loss and the inconsistency loss on the adversarial examples. This yields the first method that can use function-free Horn clauses (as in Datalog) to regularise any neural link predictor, with complexity independent of the domain size. We show that for several link prediction models, the optimisation problem faced by the adversary has efficient closed-form solutions. Experiments on link prediction benchmarks indicate that given suitable prior knowledge, our method can significantly improve neural link predictors on all relevant metrics.

    07/24/2017 ∙ by Pasquale Minervini, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Programming with a Differentiable Forth Interpreter

    Given that in practice training data is scarce for all but a small set of problems, a core question is how to incorporate prior knowledge into a model. In this paper, we consider the case of prior procedural knowledge for neural networks, such as knowing how a program should traverse a sequence, but not what local actions should be performed at each step. To this end, we present an end-to-end differentiable interpreter for the programming language Forth which enables programmers to write program sketches with slots that can be filled with behaviour trained from program input-output data. We can optimise this behaviour directly through gradient descent techniques on user-specified objectives, and also integrate the program into any larger neural computation graph. We show empirically that our interpreter is able to effectively leverage different levels of prior program structure and learn complex behaviours such as sequence sorting and addition. When connected to outputs of an LSTM and trained jointly, our interpreter achieves state-of-the-art accuracy for end-to-end reasoning about quantities expressed in natural language stories.

    05/21/2016 ∙ by Matko Bošnjak, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • End-to-End Differentiable Proving

    We introduce neural networks for end-to-end differentiable proving of queries to knowledge bases by operating on dense vector representations of symbols. These neural networks are constructed recursively by taking inspiration from the backward chaining algorithm as used in Prolog. Specifically, we replace symbolic unification with a differentiable computation on vector representations of symbols using a radial basis function kernel, thereby combining symbolic reasoning with learning subsymbolic vector representations. By using gradient descent, the resulting neural network can be trained to infer facts from a given incomplete knowledge base. It learns to (i) place representations of similar symbols in close proximity in a vector space, (ii) make use of such similarities to prove queries, (iii) induce logical rules, and (iv) use provided and induced logical rules for multi-hop reasoning. We demonstrate that this architecture outperforms ComplEx, a state-of-the-art neural link prediction model, on three out of four benchmark knowledge bases while at the same time inducing interpretable function-free first-order logic rules.

    05/31/2017 ∙ by Tim Rocktäschel, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Frustratingly Short Attention Spans in Neural Language Modeling

    Neural language models predict the next token using a latent representation of the immediate token history. Recently, various methods for augmenting neural language models with an attention mechanism over a differentiable memory have been proposed. For predicting the next token, these models query information from a memory of the recent history which can facilitate learning mid- and long-range dependencies. However, conventional attention mechanisms used in memory-augmented neural language models produce a single output vector per time step. This vector is used both for predicting the next token as well as for the key and value of a differentiable memory of a token history. In this paper, we propose a neural language model with a key-value attention mechanism that outputs separate representations for the key and value of a differentiable memory, as well as for encoding the next-word distribution. This model outperforms existing memory-augmented neural language models on two corpora. Yet, we found that our method mainly utilizes a memory of the five most recent output representations. This led to the unexpected main finding that a much simpler model based only on the concatenation of recent output representations from previous time steps is on par with more sophisticated memory-augmented neural language models.

    02/15/2017 ∙ by Michał Daniluk, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Learning Python Code Suggestion with a Sparse Pointer Network

    To enhance developer productivity, all modern integrated development environments (IDEs) include code suggestion functionality that proposes likely next tokens at the cursor. While current IDEs work well for statically-typed languages, their reliance on type annotations means that they do not provide the same level of support for dynamic programming languages as for statically-typed languages. Moreover, suggestion engines in modern IDEs do not propose expressions or multi-statement idiomatic code. Recent work has shown that language models can improve code suggestion systems by learning from software repositories. This paper introduces a neural language model with a sparse pointer network aimed at capturing very long-range dependencies. We release a large-scale code suggestion corpus of 41M lines of Python code crawled from GitHub. On this corpus, we found standard neural language models to perform well at suggesting local phenomena, but struggle to refer to identifiers that are introduced many tokens in the past. By augmenting a neural language model with a pointer network specialized in referring to predefined classes of identifiers, we obtain a much lower perplexity and a 5 percentage points increase in accuracy for code suggestion compared to an LSTM baseline. In fact, this increase in code suggestion accuracy is due to a 13 times more accurate prediction of identifiers. Furthermore, a qualitative analysis shows this model indeed captures interesting long-range dependencies, like referring to a class member defined over 60 tokens in the past.

    11/24/2016 ∙ by Avishkar Bhoopchand, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Lifted Rule Injection for Relation Embeddings

    Methods based on representation learning currently hold the state-of-the-art in many natural language processing and knowledge base inference tasks. Yet, a major challenge is how to efficiently incorporate commonsense knowledge into such models. A recent approach regularizes relation and entity representations by propositionalization of first-order logic rules. However, propositionalization does not scale beyond domains with only few entities and rules. In this paper we present a highly efficient method for incorporating implication rules into distributed representations for automated knowledge base construction. We map entity-tuple embeddings into an approximately Boolean space and encourage a partial ordering over relation embeddings based on implication rules mined from WordNet. Surprisingly, we find that the strong restriction of the entity-tuple embedding space does not hurt the expressiveness of the model and even acts as a regularizer that improves generalization. By incorporating few commonsense rules, we achieve an increase of 2 percentage points mean average precision over a matrix factorization baseline, while observing a negligible increase in runtime.

    06/27/2016 ∙ by Thomas Demeester, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Stance Detection with Bidirectional Conditional Encoding

    Stance detection is the task of classifying the attitude expressed in a text towards a target such as Hillary Clinton to be "positive", negative" or "neutral". Previous work has assumed that either the target is mentioned in the text or that training data for every target is given. This paper considers the more challenging version of this task, where targets are not always mentioned and no training data is available for the test targets. We experiment with conditional LSTM encoding, which builds a representation of the tweet that is dependent on the target, and demonstrate that it outperforms encoding the tweet and the target independently. Performance is improved further when the conditional model is augmented with bidirectional encoding. We evaluate our approach on the SemEval 2016 Task 6 Twitter Stance Detection corpus achieving performance second best only to a system trained on semi-automatically labelled tweets for the test target. When such weak supervision is added, our approach achieves state-of-the-art results.

    06/17/2016 ∙ by Isabelle Augenstein, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • MuFuRU: The Multi-Function Recurrent Unit

    Recurrent neural networks such as the GRU and LSTM found wide adoption in natural language processing and achieve state-of-the-art results for many tasks. These models are characterized by a memory state that can be written to and read from by applying gated composition operations to the current input and the previous state. However, they only cover a small subset of potentially useful compositions. We propose Multi-Function Recurrent Units (MuFuRUs) that allow for arbitrary differentiable functions as composition operations. Furthermore, MuFuRUs allow for an input- and state-dependent choice of these composition operations that is learned. Our experiments demonstrate that the additional functionality helps in different sequence modeling tasks, including the evaluation of propositional logic formulae, language modeling and sentiment analysis.

    06/09/2016 ∙ by Dirk Weissenborn, et al. ∙ 0 share

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