Baoquan Chen

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  • Image Smoothing via Unsupervised Learning

    Image smoothing represents a fundamental component of many disparate computer vision and graphics applications. In this paper, we present a unified unsupervised (label-free) learning framework that facilitates generating flexible and high-quality smoothing effects by directly learning from data using deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs). The heart of the design is the training signal as a novel energy function that includes an edge-preserving regularizer which helps maintain important yet potentially vulnerable image structures, and a spatially-adaptive Lp flattening criterion which imposes different forms of regularization onto different image regions for better smoothing quality. We implement a diverse set of image smoothing solutions employing the unified framework targeting various applications such as, image abstraction, pencil sketching, detail enhancement, texture removal and content-aware image manipulation, and obtain results comparable with or better than previous methods. Moreover, our method is extremely fast with a modern GPU (e.g, 200 fps for 1280x720 images). Our codes and model are released in https://github.com/fqnchina/ImageSmoothing.

    11/07/2018 ∙ by Qingnan Fan, et al. ∙ 18 share

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  • Learning Character-Agnostic Motion for Motion Retargeting in 2D

    Analyzing human motion is a challenging task with a wide variety of applications in computer vision and in graphics. One such application, of particular importance in computer animation, is the retargeting of motion from one performer to another. While humans move in three dimensions, the vast majority of human motions are captured using video, requiring 2D-to-3D pose and camera recovery, before existing retargeting approaches may be applied. In this paper, we present a new method for retargeting video-captured motion between different human performers, without the need to explicitly reconstruct 3D poses and/or camera parameters. In order to achieve our goal, we learn to extract, directly from a video, a high-level latent motion representation, which is invariant to the skeleton geometry and the camera view. Our key idea is to train a deep neural network to decompose temporal sequences of 2D poses into three components: motion, skeleton, and camera view-angle. Having extracted such a representation, we are able to re-combine motion with novel skeletons and camera views, and decode a retargeted temporal sequence, which we compare to a ground truth from a synthetic dataset. We demonstrate that our framework can be used to robustly extract human motion from videos, bypassing 3D reconstruction, and outperforming existing retargeting methods, when applied to videos in-the-wild. It also enables additional applications, such as performance cloning, video-driven cartoons, and motion retrieval.

    05/05/2019 ∙ by Kfir Aberman, et al. ∙ 4 share

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  • DifNet: Semantic Segmentation by DiffusionNetworks

    Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) have recently shown state of the art performance on semantic segmentation tasks, however they still suffer from problems of poor boundary localization and spatial fragmented predictions. The difficulties lie in the requirement of making dense predictions from a long path model all at once, since details are hard to keep when data goes through deeper layers. Instead, in this work, we decompose this difficult task into two relative simple sub-tasks: seed detection which is required to predict initial predictions without need of wholeness and preciseness, and similarity estimation which measures the possibility of any two nodes belong to the same class without need of knowing which class they are. We use one branch for one sub-task each, and apply a cascade of random walks base on hierarchical semantics to approximate a complex diffusion process which propagates seed information to the whole image according to the estimated similarities. The proposed DifNet consistently produces improvements over the baseline models with the same depth and with equivalent number of parameters, and also achieves promising performance on Pascal VOC and Pascal Context dataset. Our DifNet is trained end-to-end without complex loss functions.

    05/21/2018 ∙ by Peng Jiang, et al. ∙ 2 share

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  • A General Decoupled Learning Framework for Parameterized Image Operators

    Many different deep networks have been used to approximate, accelerate or improve traditional image operators. Among these traditional operators, many contain parameters which need to be tweaked to obtain the satisfactory results, which we refer to as parameterized image operators. However, most existing deep networks trained for these operators are only designed for one specific parameter configuration, which does not meet the needs of real scenarios that usually require flexible parameters settings. To overcome this limitation, we propose a new decoupled learning algorithm to learn from the operator parameters to dynamically adjust the weights of a deep network for image operators, denoted as the base network. The learned algorithm is formed as another network, namely the weight learning network, which can be end-to-end jointly trained with the base network. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed framework can be successfully applied to many traditional parameterized image operators. To accelerate the parameter tuning for practical scenarios, the proposed framework can be further extended to dynamically change the weights of only one single layer of the base network while sharing most computation cost. We demonstrate that this cheap parameter-tuning extension of the proposed decoupled learning framework even outperforms the state-of-the-art alternative approaches.

    07/11/2019 ∙ by Qingnan Fan, et al. ∙ 1 share

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  • Neuron-level Selective Context Aggregation for Scene Segmentation

    Contextual information provides important cues for disambiguating visually similar pixels in scene segmentation. In this paper, we introduce a neuron-level Selective Context Aggregation (SCA) module for scene segmentation, comprised of a contextual dependency predictor and a context aggregation operator. The dependency predictor is implicitly trained to infer contextual dependencies between different image regions. The context aggregation operator augments local representations with global context, which is aggregated selectively at each neuron according to its on-the-fly predicted dependencies. The proposed mechanism enables data-driven inference of contextual dependencies, and facilitates context-aware feature learning. The proposed method improves strong baselines built upon VGG16 on challenging scene segmentation datasets, which demonstrates its effectiveness in modeling context information.

    11/22/2017 ∙ by Zhenhua Wang, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • A Generic Deep Architecture for Single Image Reflection Removal and Image Smoothing

    This paper proposes a deep neural network structure that exploits edge information in addressing representative low-level vision tasks such as layer separation and image filtering. Unlike most other deep learning strategies applied in this context, our approach tackles these challenging problems by estimating edges and reconstructing images using only cascaded convolutional layers arranged such that no handcrafted or application-specific image-processing components are required. We apply the resulting transferrable pipeline to two different problem domains that are both sensitive to edges, namely, single image reflection removal and image smoothing. For the former, using a mild reflection smoothness assumption and a novel synthetic data generation method that acts as a type of weak supervision, our network is able to solve much more difficult reflection cases that cannot be handled by previous methods. For the latter, we also exceed the state-of-the-art quantitative and qualitative results by wide margins. In all cases, the proposed framework is simple, fast, and easy to transfer across disparate domains.

    08/11/2017 ∙ by Qingnan Fan, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Bundle Optimization for Multi-aspect Embedding

    Understanding semantic similarity among images is the core of a wide range of computer vision applications. An important step towards this goal is to collect and learn human perceptions. Interestingly, the semantic context of images is often ambiguous as images can be perceived with emphasis on different aspects, which may be contradictory to each other. In this paper, we present a method for learning the semantic similarity among images, inferring their latent aspects and embedding them into multi-spaces corresponding to their semantic aspects. We consider the multi-embedding problem as an optimization function that evaluates the embedded distances with respect to the qualitative clustering queries. The key idea of our approach is to collect and embed qualitative measures that share the same aspects in bundles. To ensure similarity aspect sharing among multiple measures, image classification queries are presented to, and solved by users. The collected image clusters are then converted into bundles of tuples, which are fed into our bundle optimization algorithm that jointly infers the aspect similarity and multi-aspect embedding. Extensive experimental results show that our approach significantly outperforms state-of-the-art multi-embedding approaches on various datasets, and scales well for large multi-aspect similarity measures.

    03/29/2017 ∙ by Qiong Zeng, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Revisiting Deep Intrinsic Image Decompositions

    While invaluable for many computer vision applications, decomposing a natural image into intrinsic reflectance and shading layers represents a challenging, underdetermined inverse problem. As opposed to strict reliance on conventional optimization or filtering solutions with strong prior assumptions, deep learning-based approaches have also been proposed to compute intrinsic image decompositions when granted access to sufficient labeled training data. The downside is that current data sources are quite limited, and broadly speaking fall into one of two categories: either dense fully-labeled images in synthetic/narrow settings, or weakly-labeled data from relatively diverse natural scenes. In contrast to many previous learning-based approaches, which are often tailored to the structure of a particular dataset (and may not work well on others), we adopt core network structures that universally reflect loose prior knowledge regarding the intrinsic image formation process and can be largely shared across datasets. We then apply flexibly supervised loss layers that are customized for each source of ground truth labels. The resulting deep architecture achieves state-of-the-art results on all of the major intrinsic image benchmarks, and runs considerably faster than most at test time.

    01/11/2017 ∙ by Qingnan Fan, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • A Holistic Approach for Data-Driven Object Cutout

    Object cutout is a fundamental operation for image editing and manipulation, yet it is extremely challenging to automate it in real-world images, which typically contain considerable background clutter. In contrast to existing cutout methods, which are based mainly on low-level image analysis, we propose a more holistic approach, which considers the entire shape of the object of interest by leveraging higher-level image analysis and learnt global shape priors. Specifically, we leverage a deep neural network (DNN) trained for objects of a particular class (chairs) for realizing this mechanism. Given a rectangular image region, the DNN outputs a probability map (P-map) that indicates for each pixel inside the rectangle how likely it is to be contained inside an object from the class of interest. We show that the resulting P-maps may be used to evaluate how likely a rectangle proposal is to contain an instance of the class, and further process good proposals to produce an accurate object cutout mask. This amounts to an automatic end-to-end pipeline for catergory-specific object cutout. We evaluate our approach on segmentation benchmark datasets, and show that it significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art on them.

    08/18/2016 ∙ by Huayong Xu, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Synthesizing Training Images for Boosting Human 3D Pose Estimation

    Human 3D pose estimation from a single image is a challenging task with numerous applications. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have recently achieved superior performance on the task of 2D pose estimation from a single image, by training on images with 2D annotations collected by crowd sourcing. This suggests that similar success could be achieved for direct estimation of 3D poses. However, 3D poses are much harder to annotate, and the lack of suitable annotated training images hinders attempts towards end-to-end solutions. To address this issue, we opt to automatically synthesize training images with ground truth pose annotations. Our work is a systematic study along this road. We find that pose space coverage and texture diversity are the key ingredients for the effectiveness of synthetic training data. We present a fully automatic, scalable approach that samples the human pose space for guiding the synthesis procedure and extracts clothing textures from real images. Furthermore, we explore domain adaptation for bridging the gap between our synthetic training images and real testing photos. We demonstrate that CNNs trained with our synthetic images out-perform those trained with real photos on 3D pose estimation tasks.

    04/10/2016 ∙ by Wenzheng Chen, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Printed Perforated Lampshades for Continuous Projective Images

    We present a technique for designing 3D-printed perforated lampshades, which project continuous grayscale images onto the surrounding walls. Given the geometry of the lampshade and a target grayscale image, our method computes a distribution of tiny holes over the shell, such that the combined footprints of the light emanating through the holes form the target image on a nearby diffuse surface. Our objective is to approximate the continuous tones and the spatial detail of the target image, to the extent possible within the constraints of the fabrication process. To ensure structural integrity, there are lower bounds on the thickness of the shell, the radii of the holes, and the minimal distances between adjacent holes. Thus, the holes are realized as thin tubes distributed over the lampshade surface. The amount of light passing through a single tube may be controlled by the tube's radius and by its direction (tilt angle). The core of our technique thus consists of determining a suitable configuration of the tubes: their distribution across the relevant portion of the lampshade, as well as the parameters (radius, tilt angle) of each tube. This is achieved by computing a capacity-constrained Voronoi tessellation over a suitably defined density function, and embedding a tube inside the maximal inscribed circle of each tessellation cell. The density function for a particular target image is derived from a series of simulated images, each corresponding to a different uniform density tube pattern on the lampshade.

    10/11/2015 ∙ by Haisen Zhao, et al. ∙ 0 share

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