Weidi Xie

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  • Geometry-Aware Video Object Detection for Static Cameras

    In this paper we propose a geometry-aware model for video object detection. Specifically, we consider the setting that cameras can be well approximated as static, e.g. in video surveillance scenarios, and scene pseudo depth maps can therefore be inferred easily from the object scale on the image plane. We make the following contributions: First, we extend the recent anchor-free detector (CornerNet [17]) to video object detections. In order to exploit the spatial-temporal information while maintaining high efficiency, the proposed model accepts video clips as input, and only makes predictions for the starting and the ending frames, i.e. heatmaps of object bounding box corners and the corresponding embeddings for grouping. Second, to tackle the challenge from scale variations in object detection, scene geometry information, e.g. derived depth maps, is explicitly incorporated into deep networks for multi-scale feature selection and for the network prediction. Third, we validate the proposed architectures on an autonomous driving dataset generated from the Carla simulator [5], and on a real dataset for human detection (DukeMTMC dataset [28]). When comparing with the existing competitive single-stage or two-stage detectors, the proposed geometry-aware spatio-temporal network achieves significantly better results.

    09/06/2019 ∙ by Dan Xu, et al. ∙ 34 share

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  • Self-supervised Learning for Video Correspondence Flow

    The objective of this paper is self-supervised learning of feature embeddings from videos, suitable for correspondence flow, i.e. matching correspondences between frames over the video. We leverage the natural spatial-temporal coherence of appearance in videos, to create a "pointer" model that learns to reconstruct a target frame by copying colors from a reference frame. We make three contributions: First, we introduce a simple information bottleneck that enforces the model to learn robust features for correspondence matching, and avoids it learning trivial solutions, e.g. matching based on low-level color information. Second, we propose to train the model over a long temporal window in videos. To make the model more robust to complex object deformation, occlusion, i.e. the problem of tracker drifting, we formulate a recursive model, trained with scheduled sampling and cycle consistency. Third, we evaluate the approach by first training on the Kinetics dataset using self-supervised learning, and then directly applied for DAVIS video segmentation and JHMDB keypoint tracking. On both tasks, our approach has achieved state-of-the-art performance, especially on segmentation, we outperform all previous methods by a significant margin.

    05/02/2019 ∙ by Zihang Lai, et al. ∙ 20 share

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  • Video Representation Learning by Dense Predictive Coding

    The objective of this paper is self-supervised learning of spatio-temporal embeddings from video, suitable for human action recognition. We make three contributions: First, we introduce the Dense Predictive Coding (DPC) framework for self-supervised representation learning on videos. This learns a dense encoding of spatio-temporal blocks by recurrently predicting future representations; Second, we propose a curriculum training scheme to predict further into the future with progressively less temporal context. This encourages the model to only encode slowly varying spatial-temporal signals, therefore leading to semantic representations; Third, we evaluate the approach by first training the DPC model on the Kinetics-400 dataset with self-supervised learning, and then finetuning the representation on a downstream task, i.e. action recognition. With single stream (RGB only), DPC pretrained representations achieve state-of-the-art self-supervised performance on both UCF101(75.7 previous learning methods by a significant margin, and approaching the performance of a baseline pre-trained on ImageNet.

    09/10/2019 ∙ by Tengda Han, et al. ∙ 16 share

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  • Class-Agnostic Counting

    Nearly all existing counting methods are designed for a specific object class. Our work, however, aims to create a counting model able to count any class of object. To achieve this goal, we formulate counting as a matching problem, enabling us to exploit the image self-similarity property that naturally exists in object counting problems. We make the following three contributions: first, a Generic Matching Network (GMN) architecture that can potentially count any object in a class-agnostic manner; second, by reformulating the counting problem as one of matching objects, we can take advantage of the abundance of video data labeled for tracking, which contains natural repetitions suitable for training a counting model. Such data enables us to train the GMN. Third, to customize the GMN to different user requirements, an adapter module is used to specialize the model with minimal effort, i.e. using a few labeled examples, and adapting only a small fraction of the trained parameters. This is a form of few-shot learning, which is practical for domains where labels are limited due to requiring expert knowledge (e.g. microbiology). We demonstrate the flexibility of our method on a diverse set of existing counting benchmarks: specifically cells, cars, and human crowds. The model achieves competitive performance on cell and crowd counting datasets, and surpasses the state-of-the-art on the car dataset using only three training images. When training on the entire dataset, the proposed method outperforms all previous methods by a large margin.

    11/01/2018 ∙ by Erika Lu, et al. ∙ 8 share

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  • Comparator Networks

    The objective of this work is set-based verification, e.g. to decide if two sets of images of a face are of the same person or not. The traditional approach to this problem is to learn to generate a feature vector per image, aggregate them into one vector to represent the set, and then compute the cosine similarity between sets. Instead, we design a neural network architecture that can directly learn set-wise verification. Our contributions are: (i) We propose a Deep Comparator Network (DCN) that can ingest a pair of sets (each may contain a variable number of images) as inputs, and compute a similarity between the pair--this involves attending to multiple discriminative local regions (landmarks), and comparing local descriptors between pairs of faces; (ii) To encourage high-quality representations for each set, internal competition is introduced for recalibration based on the landmark score; (iii) Inspired by image retrieval, a novel hard sample mining regime is proposed to control the sampling process, such that the DCN is complementary to the standard image classification models. Evaluations on the IARPA Janus face recognition benchmarks show that the comparator networks outperform the previous state-of-the-art results by a large margin.

    07/30/2018 ∙ by Weidi Xie, et al. ∙ 6 share

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  • Multicolumn Networks for Face Recognition

    The objective of this work is set-based face recognition, i.e. to decide if two sets of images of a face are of the same person or not. Conventionally, the set-wise feature descriptor is computed as an average of the descriptors from individual face images within the set. In this paper, we design a neural network architecture that learns to aggregate based on both "visual" quality (resolution, illumination), and "content" quality (relative importance for discriminative classification). To this end, we propose a Multicolumn Network (MN) that takes a set of images (the number in the set can vary) as input, and learns to compute a fix-sized feature descriptor for the entire set. To encourage high-quality representations, each individual input image is first weighted by its "visual" quality, determined by a self-quality assessment module, and followed by a dynamic recalibration based on "content" qualities relative to the other images within the set. Both of these qualities are learnt implicitly during training for set-wise classification. Comparing with the previous state-of-the-art architectures trained with the same dataset (VGGFace2), our Multicolumn Networks show an improvement of between 2-6 IARPA IJB face recognition benchmarks, and exceed the state of the art for all methods on these benchmarks.

    07/24/2018 ∙ by Weidi Xie, et al. ∙ 2 share

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  • Utterance-level Aggregation For Speaker Recognition In The Wild

    The objective of this paper is speaker recognition "in the wild"-where utterances may be of variable length and also contain irrelevant signals. Crucial elements in the design of deep networks for this task are the type of trunk (frame level) network, and the method of temporal aggregation. We propose a powerful speaker recognition deep network, using a "thin-ResNet" trunk architecture, and a dictionary-based NetVLAD or GhostVLAD layer to aggregate features across time, that can be trained end-to-end. We show that our network achieves state of the art performance by a significant margin on the VoxCeleb1 test set for speaker recognition, whilst requiring fewer parameters than previous methods. We also investigate the effect of utterance length on performance, and conclude that for "in the wild" data, a longer length is beneficial.

    02/26/2019 ∙ by Weidi Xie, et al. ∙ 2 share

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  • Omega-Net: Fully Automatic, Multi-View Cardiac MR Detection, Orientation, and Segmentation with Deep Neural Networks

    Pixelwise segmentation of the left ventricular (LV) myocardium and the four cardiac chambers in 2-D steady state free precession (SSFP) cine sequences is an essential preprocessing step for a wide range of analyses. Variability in contrast, appearance, orientation, and placement of the heart between patients, clinical views, scanners, and protocols makes fully automatic semantic segmentation a notoriously difficult problem. Here, we present Ω-Net (Omega-Net): a novel convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture for simultaneous detection, transformation into a canonical orientation, and semantic segmentation. First, a coarse-grained segmentation is performed on the input image, second, the features learned during this coarse-grained segmentation are used to predict the parameters needed to transform the input image into a canonical orientation, and third, a fine-grained segmentation is performed on the transformed image. In this work, Ω-Nets of varying depths were trained to detect five foreground classes in any of three clinical views (short axis, SA, four-chamber, 4C, two-chamber, 2C), without prior knowledge of the view being segmented. This constitutes a substantially more challenging problem compared with prior work. The architecture was trained on a cohort of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM, N = 42) and healthy control subjects (N = 21). Network performance as measured by weighted foreground intersection-over-union (IoU) was substantially improved in the best-performing Ω- Net compared with U-Net segmentation without detection or orientation (0.858 vs 0.834). We believe this architecture represents a substantive advancement over prior approaches, with implications for biomedical image segmentation more generally.

    11/03/2017 ∙ by Davis M. Vigneault, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • VGGFace2: A dataset for recognising faces across pose and age

    In this paper, we introduce a new large-scale face dataset named VGGFace2. The dataset contains 3.31 million images of 9131 subjects, with an average of 362.6 images for each subject. Images are downloaded from Google Image Search and have large variations in pose, age, illumination, ethnicity and profession (e.g. actors, athletes, politicians). The dataset was collected with three goals in mind: (i) to have both a large number of identities and also a large number of images for each identity; (ii) to cover a large range of pose, age and ethnicity; and (iii) to minimize the label noise. We describe how the dataset was collected, in particular the automated and manual filtering stages to ensure a high accuracy for the images of each identity. To assess face recognition performance using the new dataset, we train ResNet-50 (with and without Squeeze-and-Excitation blocks) Convolutional Neural Networks on VGGFace2, on MS- Celeb-1M, and on their union, and show that training on VGGFace2 leads to improved recognition performance over pose and age. Finally, using the models trained on these datasets, we demonstrate state-of-the-art performance on the IJB-A and IJB-B face recognition benchmarks, exceeding the previous state-of-the-art by a large margin. Datasets and models are publicly available.

    10/23/2017 ∙ by Qiong Cao, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Freehand Ultrasound Image Simulation with Spatially-Conditioned Generative Adversarial Networks

    Sonography synthesis has a wide range of applications, including medical procedure simulation, clinical training and multimodality image registration. In this paper, we propose a machine learning approach to simulate ultrasound images at given 3D spatial locations (relative to the patient anatomy), based on conditional generative adversarial networks (GANs). In particular, we introduce a novel neural network architecture that can sample anatomically accurate images conditionally on spatial position of the (real or mock) freehand ultrasound probe. To ensure an effective and efficient spatial information assimilation, the proposed spatially-conditioned GANs take calibrated pixel coordinates in global physical space as conditioning input, and utilise residual network units and shortcuts of conditioning data in the GANs' discriminator and generator, respectively. Using optically tracked B-mode ultrasound images, acquired by an experienced sonographer on a fetus phantom, we demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method by two sets of quantitative results: distances were calculated between corresponding anatomical landmarks identified in the held-out ultrasound images and the simulated data at the same locations unseen to the networks; a usability study was carried out to distinguish the simulated data from the real images. In summary, we present what we believe are state-of-the-art visually realistic ultrasound images, simulated by the proposed GAN architecture that is stable to train and capable of generating plausibly diverse image samples.

    07/17/2017 ∙ by Yipeng Hu, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • AutoCorrect: Deep Inductive Alignment of Noisy Geometric Annotations

    We propose AutoCorrect, a method to automatically learn object-annotation alignments from a dataset with annotations affected by geometric noise. The method is based on a consistency loss that enables deep neural networks to be trained, given only noisy annotations as input, to correct the annotations. When some noise-free annotations are available, we show that the consistency loss reduces to a stricter self-supervised loss. We also show that the method can implicitly leverage object symmetries to reduce the ambiguity arising in correcting noisy annotations. When multiple object-annotation pairs are present in an image, we introduce a spatial memory map that allows the network to correct annotations sequentially, one at a time, while accounting for all other annotations in the image and corrections performed so far. Through ablation, we show the benefit of these contributions, demonstrating excellent results on geo-spatial imagery. Specifically, we show results using a new Railway tracks dataset as well as the public INRIA Buildings benchmarks, achieving new state-of-the-art results for the latter.

    08/14/2019 ∙ by Honglie Chen, et al. ∙ 0 share

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