Chuang Gan

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Visiting Researcher at Stanford University 2017, Research Intern ar Microsoft Research Redmond 2016, Visiting Researcher at University of Southern California 2015, Visiting Researcher at Carnegie Mellon University 2014-2015, Research Intern at Microsoft Research Asia 2012-2013

  • The Neuro-Symbolic Concept Learner: Interpreting Scenes, Words, and Sentences From Natural Supervision

    We propose the Neuro-Symbolic Concept Learner (NS-CL), a model that learns visual concepts, words, and semantic parsing of sentences without explicit supervision on any of them; instead, our model learns by simply looking at images and reading paired questions and answers. Our model builds an object-based scene representation and translates sentences into executable, symbolic programs. To bridge the learning of two modules, we use a neuro-symbolic reasoning module that executes these programs on the latent scene representation. Analogical to human concept learning, the perception module learns visual concepts based on the language description of the object being referred to. Meanwhile, the learned visual concepts facilitate learning new words and parsing new sentences. We use curriculum learning to guide the searching over the large compositional space of images and language. Extensive experiments demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of our model on learning visual concepts, word representations, and semantic parsing of sentences. Further, our method allows easy generalization to new object attributes, compositions, language concepts, scenes and questions, and even new program domains. It also empowers applications including visual question answering and bidirectional image-text retrieval.

    04/26/2019 ∙ by Jiayuan Mao, et al. ∙ 12 share

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  • Temporal Shift Module for Efficient Video Understanding

    The explosive growth in online video streaming gives rise to challenges on efficiently extracting the spatial-temporal information to perform video understanding. Conventional 2D CNNs are computationally cheap but cannot capture long-term temporal relationships; 3D CNN based methods can achieve good performance but are computationally intensive, making it expensive to deploy. In this paper, we propose a generic and effective Temporal Shift Module (TSM) that enjoys both high efficiency and high performance. Specifically, it can achieve the performance of 3D CNN but maintain 2D complexity. The central idea of TSM is to shift part of the channels along the temporal dimension, which facilitates information exchange among neighboring frames. TSM can be inserted into 2D CNNs to achieve temporal modeling at the cost of zero FLOPs and zero parameters. On the Something-Something-V1 dataset which focuses on temporal modeling, we achieved better results than I3D family and ECO family using 6X and 2.7X fewer FLOPs respectively. Measured on P100 GPU, our single model achieved 1.8 compared to I3D. Remarkably, our framework ranks the first on both Something-Something V1 and V2 leaderboards upon this paper's submission.

    11/20/2018 ∙ by Ji Lin, et al. ∙ 8 share

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  • Controllable Image-to-Video Translation: A Case Study on Facial Expression Generation

    The recent advances in deep learning have made it possible to generate photo-realistic images by using neural networks and even to extrapolate video frames from an input video clip. In this paper, for the sake of both furthering this exploration and our own interest in a realistic application, we study image-to-video translation and particularly focus on the videos of facial expressions. This problem challenges the deep neural networks by another temporal dimension comparing to the image-to-image translation. Moreover, its single input image fails most existing video generation methods that rely on recurrent models. We propose a user-controllable approach so as to generate video clips of various lengths from a single face image. The lengths and types of the expressions are controlled by users. To this end, we design a novel neural network architecture that can incorporate the user input into its skip connections and propose several improvements to the adversarial training method for the neural network. Experiments and user studies verify the effectiveness of our approach. Especially, we would like to highlight that even for the face images in the wild (downloaded from the Web and the authors' own photos), our model can generate high-quality facial expression videos of which about 50% are labeled as real by Amazon Mechanical Turk workers.

    08/09/2018 ∙ by Lijie Fan, et al. ∙ 6 share

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  • Attention Clusters: Purely Attention Based Local Feature Integration for Video Classification

    Recently, substantial research effort has focused on how to apply CNNs or RNNs to better extract temporal patterns from videos, so as to improve the accuracy of video classification. In this paper, however, we show that temporal information, especially longer-term patterns, may not be necessary to achieve competitive results on common video classification datasets. We investigate the potential of a purely attention based local feature integration. Accounting for the characteristics of such features in video classification, we propose a local feature integration framework based on attention clusters, and introduce a shifting operation to capture more diverse signals. We carefully analyze and compare the effect of different attention mechanisms, cluster sizes, and the use of the shifting operation, and also investigate the combination of attention clusters for multimodal integration. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework on three real-world video classification datasets. Our model achieves competitive results across all of these. In particular, on the large-scale Kinetics dataset, our framework obtains an excellent single model accuracy of 79.4 accuracy on the validation set. The attention clusters are the backbone of our winner solution at ActivityNet Kinetics Challenge 2017. Code and models will be released soon.

    11/27/2017 ∙ by Xiang Long, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Revisiting the Effectiveness of Off-the-shelf Temporal Modeling Approaches for Large-scale Video Classification

    This paper describes our solution for the video recognition task of ActivityNet Kinetics challenge that ranked the 1st place. Most of existing state-of-the-art video recognition approaches are in favor of an end-to-end pipeline. One exception is the framework of DevNet. The merit of DevNet is that they first use the video data to learn a network (i.e. fine-tuning or training from scratch). Instead of directly using the end-to-end classification scores (e.g. softmax scores), they extract the features from the learned network and then fed them into the off-the-shelf machine learning models to conduct video classification. However, the effectiveness of this line work has long-term been ignored and underestimated. In this submission, we extensively use this strategy. Particularly, we investigate four temporal modeling approaches using the learned features: Multi-group Shifting Attention Network, Temporal Xception Network, Multi-stream sequence Model and Fast-Forward Sequence Model. Experiment results on the challenging Kinetics dataset demonstrate that our proposed temporal modeling approaches can significantly improve existing approaches in the large-scale video recognition tasks. Most remarkably, our best single Multi-group Shifting Attention Network can achieve 77.7 top-1 accuracy and 93.2

    08/12/2017 ∙ by Yunlong Bian, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Temporal Modeling Approaches for Large-scale Youtube-8M Video Understanding

    This paper describes our solution for the video recognition task of the Google Cloud and YouTube-8M Video Understanding Challenge that ranked the 3rd place. Because the challenge provides pre-extracted visual and audio features instead of the raw videos, we mainly investigate various temporal modeling approaches to aggregate the frame-level features for multi-label video recognition. Our system contains three major components: two-stream sequence model, fast-forward sequence model and temporal residual neural networks. Experiment results on the challenging Youtube-8M dataset demonstrate that our proposed temporal modeling approaches can significantly improve existing temporal modeling approaches in the large-scale video recognition tasks. To be noted, our fast-forward LSTM with a depth of 7 layers achieves 82.75 of GAP@20 on the Kaggle Public test set.

    07/14/2017 ∙ by Fu Li, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Recurrent Topic-Transition GAN for Visual Paragraph Generation

    A natural image usually conveys rich semantic content and can be viewed from different angles. Existing image description methods are largely restricted by small sets of biased visual paragraph annotations, and fail to cover rich underlying semantics. In this paper, we investigate a semi-supervised paragraph generative framework that is able to synthesize diverse and semantically coherent paragraph descriptions by reasoning over local semantic regions and exploiting linguistic knowledge. The proposed Recurrent Topic-Transition Generative Adversarial Network (RTT-GAN) builds an adversarial framework between a structured paragraph generator and multi-level paragraph discriminators. The paragraph generator generates sentences recurrently by incorporating region-based visual and language attention mechanisms at each step. The quality of generated paragraph sentences is assessed by multi-level adversarial discriminators from two aspects, namely, plausibility at sentence level and topic-transition coherence at paragraph level. The joint adversarial training of RTT-GAN drives the model to generate realistic paragraphs with smooth logical transition between sentence topics. Extensive quantitative experiments on image and video paragraph datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our RTT-GAN in both supervised and semi-supervised settings. Qualitative results on telling diverse stories for an image also verify the interpretability of RTT-GAN.

    03/21/2017 ∙ by Xiaodan Liang, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Video Captioning with Multi-Faceted Attention

    Recently, video captioning has been attracting an increasing amount of interest, due to its potential for improving accessibility and information retrieval. While existing methods rely on different kinds of visual features and model structures, they do not fully exploit relevant semantic information. We present an extensible approach to jointly leverage several sorts of visual features and semantic attributes. Our novel architecture builds on LSTMs for sentence generation, with several attention layers and two multimodal layers. The attention mechanism learns to automatically select the most salient visual features or semantic attributes, and the multimodal layer yields overall representations for the input and outputs of the sentence generation component. Experimental results on the challenging MSVD and MSR-VTT datasets show that our framework outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches, while ground truth based semantic attributes are able to further elevate the output quality to a near-human level.

    12/01/2016 ∙ by Xiang Long, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Strategies for Searching Video Content with Text Queries or Video Examples

    The large number of user-generated videos uploaded on to the Internet everyday has led to many commercial video search engines, which mainly rely on text metadata for search. However, metadata is often lacking for user-generated videos, thus these videos are unsearchable by current search engines. Therefore, content-based video retrieval (CBVR) tackles this metadata-scarcity problem by directly analyzing the visual and audio streams of each video. CBVR encompasses multiple research topics, including low-level feature design, feature fusion, semantic detector training and video search/reranking. We present novel strategies in these topics to enhance CBVR in both accuracy and speed under different query inputs, including pure textual queries and query by video examples. Our proposed strategies have been incorporated into our submission for the TRECVID 2014 Multimedia Event Detection evaluation, where our system outperformed other submissions in both text queries and video example queries, thus demonstrating the effectiveness of our proposed approaches.

    06/17/2016 ∙ by Shoou-I Yu, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • VQS: Linking Segmentations to Questions and Answers for Supervised Attention in VQA and Question-Focused Semantic Segmentation

    Rich and dense human labeled datasets are among the main enabling factors for the recent advance on vision-language understanding. Many seemingly distant annotations (e.g., semantic segmentation and visual question answering (VQA)) are inherently connected in that they reveal different levels and perspectives of human understandings about the same visual scenes --- and even the same set of images (e.g., of COCO). The popularity of COCO correlates those annotations and tasks. Explicitly linking them up may significantly benefit both individual tasks and the unified vision and language modeling. We present the preliminary work of linking the instance segmentations provided by COCO to the questions and answers (QAs) in the VQA dataset, and name the collected links visual questions and segmentation answers (VQS). They transfer human supervision between the previously separate tasks, offer more effective leverage to existing problems, and also open the door for new research problems and models. We study two applications of the VQS data in this paper: supervised attention for VQA and a novel question-focused semantic segmentation task. For the former, we obtain state-of-the-art results on the VQA real multiple-choice task by simply augmenting the multilayer perceptrons with some attention features that are learned using the segmentation-QA links as explicit supervision. To put the latter in perspective, we study two plausible methods and compare them to an oracle method assuming that the instance segmentations are given at the test stage.

    08/15/2017 ∙ by Chuang Gan, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Semantic Compositional Networks for Visual Captioning

    A Semantic Compositional Network (SCN) is developed for image captioning, in which semantic concepts (i.e., tags) are detected from the image, and the probability of each tag is used to compose the parameters in a long short-term memory (LSTM) network. The SCN extends each weight matrix of the LSTM to an ensemble of tag-dependent weight matrices. The degree to which each member of the ensemble is used to generate an image caption is tied to the image-dependent probability of the corresponding tag. In addition to captioning images, we also extend the SCN to generate captions for video clips. We qualitatively analyze semantic composition in SCNs, and quantitatively evaluate the algorithm on three benchmark datasets: COCO, Flickr30k, and Youtube2Text. Experimental results show that the proposed method significantly outperforms prior state-of-the-art approaches, across multiple evaluation metrics.

    11/23/2016 ∙ by Zhe Gan, et al. ∙ 0 share

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