Timelines for In-Code Discovery of Zero-Day Vulnerabilities and Supply-Chain Attacks

by   Andrew J. Lohn, et al.

Zero-day vulnerabilities can be accidentally or maliciously placed in code and can remain in place for years. In this study, we address an aspect of their longevity by considering the likelihood that they will be discovered in the code across versions. We approximate well-disguised vulnerabilities as only being discoverable if the relevant lines of code are explicitly examined, and obvious vulnerabilities as being discoverable if any part of the relevant file is examined. We analyze the version-to-version changes in three types of open source software (Mozilla Firefox, GNU/Linus, and glibc) to understand the rate at which the various pieces of code are amended and find that much of the revision behavior can be captured with a simple intuitive model. We use that model and the data from over a billion unique lines of code in 87 different versions of software to specify the bounds for in-code discoverability of vulnerabilities - from expertly hidden to obviously observable.



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