Sample Size Calculation for Active-Arm Trial with Counterfactual Incidence Based on Recency Assay

by   Fei Gao, et al.

The past decade has seen tremendous progress in the development of biomedical agents that are effective as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention. To expand the choice of products and delivery methods, new medications and delivery methods are under development. Future trials of non-inferiority, given the high efficacy of ARV-based PrEP products as they become current or future standard of care, would require a large number of participants and long follow-up time that may not be feasible. This motivates the construction of a counterfactual estimate that approximates incidence for a randomized concurrent control group receiving no PrEP. We propose an approach that is to enroll a cohort of prospective PrEP users and augment screening for HIV with laboratory markers of duration of HIV infection to indicate recent infections. We discuss the assumptions under which these data would yield an estimate of the counterfactual HIV incidence and develop sample size and power calculations for comparisons to incidence observed on an investigational PrEP agent.


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