Reconciling the Gaussian and Whittle Likelihood with an application to estimation in the frequency domain

01/20/2020 ∙ by Suhasini Subba Rao, et al. ∙ 0

In time series analysis there is an apparent dichotomy between time and frequency domain methods. The aim of this paper is to draw connections between frequency and time domain methods. Our focus will be on reconciling the Gaussian likelihood and the Whittle likelihood. We derive an exact, interpretable, bound between the Gaussian and Whittle likelihood of a second order stationary time series. The derivation is based on obtaining the transformation which is biorthogonal to the discrete Fourier transform of the time series. Such a transformation yields a new decomposition for the inverse of a Toeplitz matrix and enables the representation of the Gaussian likelihood within the frequency domain. We show that the difference between the Gaussian and Whittle likelihood is due to the omission of the best linear predictions outside the domain of observation in the periodogram associated with the Whittle likelihood. And obtain an approximation for the difference between the Gaussian and Whittle likelihoods in terms of the best fitting, finite order autoregressive parameters. These approximations are used to define two new frequency domain quasi-likelihoods criteria. We show these new criteria yield a higher order approximation of the spectral divergence criterion, as compared to both the Gaussian and Whittle likelihoods. In simulations, we show that the proposed estimators have satisfactory finite sample properties.



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