Polarization Multiplexed Diffractive Computing: All-Optical Implementation of a Group of Linear Transformations Through a Polarization-Encoded Diffractive Network

by   Jingxi Li, et al.

Research on optical computing has recently attracted significant attention due to the transformative advances in machine learning. Among different approaches, diffractive optical networks composed of spatially-engineered transmissive surfaces have been demonstrated for all-optical statistical inference and performing arbitrary linear transformations using passive, free-space optical layers. Here, we introduce a polarization multiplexed diffractive processor to all-optically perform multiple, arbitrarily-selected linear transformations through a single diffractive network trained using deep learning. In this framework, an array of pre-selected linear polarizers is positioned between trainable transmissive diffractive materials that are isotropic, and different target linear transformations (complex-valued) are uniquely assigned to different combinations of input/output polarization states. The transmission layers of this polarization multiplexed diffractive network are trained and optimized via deep learning and error-backpropagation by using thousands of examples of the input/output fields corresponding to each one of the complex-valued linear transformations assigned to different input/output polarization combinations. Our results and analysis reveal that a single diffractive network can successfully approximate and all-optically implement a group of arbitrarily-selected target transformations with a negligible error when the number of trainable diffractive features/neurons (N) approaches N_p x N_i x N_o, where N_i and N_o represent the number of pixels at the input and output fields-of-view, respectively, and N_p refers to the number of unique linear transformations assigned to different input/output polarization combinations. This polarization-multiplexed all-optical diffractive processor can find various applications in optical computing and polarization-based machine vision tasks.



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