p-Laplacian Based Graph Neural Networks

by   Guoji Fu, et al.

Graph neural networks (GNNs) have demonstrated superior performance for semi-supervised node classification on graphs, as a result of their ability to exploit node features and topological information simultaneously. However, most GNNs implicitly assume that the labels of nodes and their neighbors in a graph are the same or consistent, which does not hold in heterophilic graphs, where the labels of linked nodes are likely to differ. Hence, when the topology is non-informative for label prediction, ordinary GNNs may work significantly worse than simply applying multi-layer perceptrons (MLPs) on each node. To tackle the above problem, we propose a new p-Laplacian based GNN model, termed as ^pGNN, whose message passing mechanism is derived from a discrete regularization framework and could be theoretically explained as an approximation of a polynomial graph filter defined on the spectral domain of p-Laplacians. The spectral analysis shows that the new message passing mechanism works simultaneously as low-pass and high-pass filters, thus making ^pGNNs are effective on both homophilic and heterophilic graphs. Empirical studies on real-world and synthetic datasets validate our findings and demonstrate that ^pGNNs significantly outperform several state-of-the-art GNN architectures on heterophilic benchmarks while achieving competitive performance on homophilic benchmarks. Moreover, ^pGNNs can adaptively learn aggregation weights and are robust to noisy edges.



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