DeepAI
Log In Sign Up

On Determinism of Game Engines used for Simulation-based Autonomous Vehicle Verification

04/07/2021
by   Greg Chance, et al.
0

Game engines are increasingly used as simulation platforms by the autonomous vehicle (AV) community to develop vehicle control systems and test environments. A key requirement for simulation-based development and verification is determinism, since a deterministic process will always produce the same output given the same initial conditions and event history. Thus, in a deterministic simulation environment, tests are rendered repeatable and yield simulation results that are trustworthy and straightforward to debug. However, game engines are seldom deterministic. This paper reviews and identifies the potential causes of non-deterministic behaviours in game engines. A case study using CARLA, an open-source autonomous driving simulation environment powered by Unreal Engine, is presented to highlight its inherent shortcomings in providing sufficient precision in experimental results. Different configurations and utilisations of the software and hardware are explored to determine an operational domain where the simulation precision is sufficiently low i.e. variance between repeated executions becomes negligible for development and testing work. Finally, a method of a general nature is proposed, that can be used to find the domains of permissible variance in game engine simulations for any given system configuration.

READ FULL TEXT

page 1

page 2

page 3

page 4

04/12/2020

Are Game Engines Software Frameworks? A Three-perspective Study

Game engines help developers create video games and avoid duplication of...
12/23/2021

Comparative Study of Cloud and Non-Cloud Gaming Platform: Apercu

Nowadays game engines are imperative for building 3D applications and ga...
02/05/2019

Situational Grounding within Multimodal Simulations

In this paper, we argue that simulation platforms enable a novel type of...
07/13/2022

Game Engine Comparative Anatomy

Video game developers use game engines as a tool to manage complex aspec...
08/07/2019

Unified Simulation and Test Platform for Control Systems of Unmanned Vehicles

Control systems on unmanned vehicles are safety-critical systems whose r...
02/04/2019

Paracosm: A Language and Tool for Testing Autonomous Driving Systems

Systematic testing of autonomous vehicles operating in complex real-worl...