Non-Interactive Quantum Key Distribution

by   Giulio Malavolta, et al.

Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows Alice and Bob to agree on a shared secret key, while communicating over a public (untrusted) quantum channel. Compared to classical key exchange, it has two main advantages: (i) The key is unconditionally hidden to the eyes of any attacker, and (ii) its security assumes only the existence of authenticated classical channels which, in practice, can be realized using Minicrypt assumptions, such as the existence of digital signatures. On the flip side, QKD protocols typically require multiple rounds of interactions, whereas classical key exchange can be realized with the minimal amount of two messages. A long-standing open question is whether QKD requires more rounds of interaction than classical key exchange. In this work, we propose a two-message QKD protocol that satisfies everlasting security, assuming only the existence of quantum-secure one-way functions. That is, the shared key is unconditionally hidden, provided computational assumptions hold during the protocol execution. Our result follows from a new quantum cryptographic primitive that we introduce in this work: the quantum-public-key one-time pad, a public-key analogue of the well-known one-time pad.


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