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Machine and Deep Learning Methods with Manual and Automatic Labelling for News Classification in Bangla Language

by   Istiak Ahmad, et al.

Research in Natural Language Processing (NLP) has increasingly become important due to applications such as text classification, text mining, sentiment analysis, POS tagging, named entity recognition, textual entailment, and many others. This paper introduces several machine and deep learning methods with manual and automatic labelling for news classification in the Bangla language. We implemented several machine (ML) and deep learning (DL) algorithms. The ML algorithms are Logistic Regression (LR), Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Random Forest (RF), and K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN), used with Bag of Words (BoW), Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF), and Doc2Vec embedding models. The DL algorithms are Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), Bidirectional LSTM (BiLSTM), Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU), and Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), used with Word2vec, Glove, and FastText word embedding models. We develop automatic labelling methods using Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) and investigate the performance of single-label and multi-label article classification methods. To investigate performance, we developed from scratch Potrika, the largest and the most extensive dataset for news classification in the Bangla language, comprising 185.51 million words and 12.57 million sentences contained in 664,880 news articles in eight distinct categories, curated from six popular online news portals in Bangladesh for the period 2014-2020. GRU and Fasttext with 91.83 achieve the highest accuracy for manually-labelled data. For the automatic labelling case, KNN and Doc2Vec at 57.72 for single-label and multi-label data, respectively. The methods developed in this paper are expected to advance research in Bangla and other languages.


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