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Introducing Non-Linearity into Quantum Generative Models

by   Kaitlin Gili, et al.

The evolution of an isolated quantum system is linear, and hence quantum algorithms are reversible, including those that utilize quantum circuits as generative machine learning models. However, some of the most successful classical generative models, such as those based on neural networks, involve highly non-linear and thus non-reversible dynamics. In this paper, we explore the effect of these dynamics in quantum generative modeling by introducing a model that adds non-linear activations via a neural network structure onto the standard Born Machine framework - the Quantum Neuron Born Machine (QNBM). To achieve this, we utilize a previously introduced Quantum Neuron subroutine, which is a repeat-until-success circuit with mid-circuit measurements and classical control. After introducing the QNBM, we investigate how its performance depends on network size, by training a 3-layer QNBM with 4 output neurons and various input and hidden layer sizes. We then compare our non-linear QNBM to the linear Quantum Circuit Born Machine (QCBM). We allocate similar time and memory resources to each model, such that the only major difference is the qubit overhead required by the QNBM. With gradient-based training, we show that while both models can easily learn a trivial uniform probability distribution, on a more challenging class of distributions, the QNBM achieves an almost 3x smaller error rate than a QCBM with a similar number of tunable parameters. We therefore show that non-linearity is a useful resource in quantum generative models, and we put forth the QNBM as a new model with good generative performance and potential for quantum advantage.


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