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High-speed real-time single-pixel microscopy based on Fourier sampling

by   Qiang Guo, et al.

Single-pixel cameras based on the concepts of compressed sensing (CS) leverage the inherent structure of images to retrieve them with far fewer measurements and operate efficiently over a significantly broader spectral range than conventional silicon-based cameras. Recently, photonic time-stretch (PTS) technique facilitates the emergence of high-speed single-pixel cameras. A significant breakthrough in imaging speed of single-pixel cameras enables observation of fast dynamic phenomena. However, according to CS theory, image reconstruction is an iterative process that consumes enormous amounts of computational time and cannot be performed in real time. To address this challenge, we propose a novel single-pixel imaging technique that can produce high-quality images through rapid acquisition of their effective spatial Fourier spectrum. We employ phase-shifting sinusoidal structured illumination instead of random illumination for spectrum acquisition and apply inverse Fourier transform to the obtained spectrum for image restoration. We evaluate the performance of our prototype system by recognizing quick response (QR) codes and flow cytometric screening of cells. A frame rate of 625 kHz and a compression ratio of 10 recognition rate of the QR code. An imaging flow cytometer enabling high-content screening with an unprecedented throughput of 100,000 cells/s is also demonstrated. For real-time imaging applications, the proposed single-pixel microscope can significantly reduce the time required for image reconstruction by two orders of magnitude, which can be widely applied in industrial quality control and label-free biomedical imaging.


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