Hierarchical Trajectory Planning for Autonomous Driving in Low-speed Driving Scenarios Based on RRT and Optimization

by   Yuying Chen, et al.
The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

Though great effort has been put into the study of path planning on urban roads and highways, few works have studied the driving strategy and trajectory planning in low-speed driving scenarios, e.g., driving on a university campus or driving through a housing or industrial estate. The study of planning in these scenarios is crucial as these environments often cover the first or the last one kilometer of a daily travel or logistic system. Additionally, it is essential to treat these scenarios differently as, in most cases, the driving environment is narrow, dynamic, and rich with obstacles, which also causes the planning in such environments to continue to be a challenging task. This paper proposes a hierarchical planning approach that separates the path planning and the temporal planning. A path that satisfies the kinematic constraints is generated through a modified bidirectional rapidly exploring random tree (bi-RRT) approach. Following that, the timestamp of each node of the path is optimized through sequential quadratic programming (SQP) with the feasible searching bounds defined by safe intervals (SIs). Simulations and real tests in different driving scenarios prove the effectiveness of this method.


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