Deep Learning to Segment Pelvic Bones: Large-scale CT Datasets and Baseline Models

by   Pengbo Liu, et al.

Purpose: Pelvic bone segmentation in CT has always been an essential step in clinical diagnosis and surgery planning of pelvic bone diseases. Existing methods for pelvic bone segmentation are either hand-crafted or semi-automatic and achieve limited accuracy when dealing with image appearance variations due to the multi-site domain shift, the presence of contrasted vessels, coprolith and chyme, bone fractures, low dose, metal artifacts, etc. Due to the lack of a large-scale pelvic CT dataset with annotations, deep learning methods are not fully explored. Methods: In this paper, we aim to bridge the data gap by curating a large pelvic CT dataset pooled from multiple sources and different manufacturers, including 1, 184 CT volumes and over 320, 000 slices with different resolutions and a variety of the above-mentioned appearance variations. Then we propose for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, to learn a deep multi-class network for segmenting lumbar spine, sacrum, left hip, and right hip, from multiple-domain images simultaneously to obtain more effective and robust feature representations. Finally, we introduce a post-processing tool based on the signed distance function (SDF) to eliminate false predictions while retaining correctly predicted bone fragments. Results: Extensive experiments on our dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of our automatic method, achieving an average Dice of 0.987 for a metal-free volume. SDF post-processor yields a decrease of 10.5 maintaining important bone fragments in post-processing phase. Conclusion: We believe this large-scale dataset will promote the development of the whole community and plan to open source the images, annotations, codes, and trained baseline models at this URL1.


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