Bayesian Reconstruction of Fourier Pairs

by   Felipe Tobar, et al.

In a number of data-driven applications such as detection of arrhythmia, interferometry or audio compression, observations are acquired indistinctly in the time or frequency domains: temporal observations allow us to study the spectral content of signals (e.g., audio), while frequency-domain observations are used to reconstruct temporal/spatial data (e.g., MRI). Classical approaches for spectral analysis rely either on i) a discretisation of the time and frequency domains, where the fast Fourier transform stands out as the de facto off-the-shelf resource, or ii) stringent parametric models with closed-form spectra. However, the general literature fails to cater for missing observations and noise-corrupted data. Our aim is to address the lack of a principled treatment of data acquired indistinctly in the temporal and frequency domains in a way that is robust to missing or noisy observations, and that at the same time models uncertainty effectively. To achieve this aim, we first define a joint probabilistic model for the temporal and spectral representations of signals, to then perform a Bayesian model update in the light of observations, thus jointly reconstructing the complete (latent) time and frequency representations. The proposed model is analysed from a classical spectral analysis perspective, and its implementation is illustrated through intuitive examples. Lastly, we show that the proposed model is able to perform joint time and frequency reconstruction of real-world audio, healthcare and astronomy signals, while successfully dealing with missing data and handling uncertainty (noise) naturally against both classical and modern approaches for spectral estimation.



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