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Ballistocardiogram Signal Processing: A Literature Review

by   Ibrahim Sadek, et al.

Time-domain algorithms are focused on detecting local maxima or local minima using a moving window, and therefore finding the interval between the dominant J-peaks of ballistocardiogram (BCG) signal. However, this approach has many limitations due to the nonlinear and nonstationary behavior of the BCG signal. This is because the BCG signal does not display consistent J-peaks, which can usually be the case for overnight, in-home monitoring, particularly with frail elderly. Additionally, its accuracy will be undoubtedly affected by motion artifacts. Second, frequency-domain algorithms do not provide information about interbeat intervals. Nevertheless, they can provide information about heart rate variability. This is usually done by taking the fast Fourier transform or the inverse Fourier transform of the logarithm of the estimated spectrum, i.e., cepstrum of the signal using a sliding window. Thereafter, the dominant frequency is obtained in a particular frequency range. The limit of these algorithms is that the peak in the spectrum may get wider and multiple peaks may appear, which might cause a problem in measuring the vital signs. At last, the objective of wavelet-domain algorithms is to decompose the signal into different components, hence the component which shows an agreement with the vital signs can be selected i.e., the selected component contains only information about the heart cycles or respiratory cycles, respectively. An empirical mode decomposition is an alternative approach to wavelet decomposition, and it is also a very suitable approach to cope with nonlinear and nonstationary signals such as cardiorespiratory signals. Apart from the above-mentioned algorithms, machine learning approaches have been implemented for measuring heartbeats. However, manual labeling of training data is a restricting property.


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