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Automatic accuracy management of quantum programs via (near-)symbolic resource estimation

by   Giulia Meuli, et al.

When compiling programs for fault-tolerant quantum computers, approximation errors must be taken into account. We propose a methodology that tracks such errors automatically and solves the optimization problem of finding accuracy parameters that guarantee a specified overall accuracy while aiming to minimize a custom implementation cost. The core idea is to extract constraint and cost functions directly from the high-level description of the quantum program. Then, our custom compiler passes optimize these functions, turning them into (near-)symbolic expressions for (1) the total error and (2) the implementation cost (e.g., total gate count). All unspecified parameters of the quantum program will show up as variables in these expressions, including accuracy parameters. After solving the corresponding optimization problem, a circuit can be instantiated from the found solution. We develop two prototype implementations, one in C++ based on Clang/LLVM, and another using the Q# compiler infrastructure. We benchmark our prototypes on typical quantum computing programs, including the quantum Fourier transform, quantum phase estimation, and Shor's algorithm.


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