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A LQD-RKHS-based distribution-to-distribution regression method and its application to restore distributions of missing SHM data

by   Zhicheng Chen, et al.

Data loss is a critical problem in structural health monitoring (SHM). Probability distributions play a highly important role in many applications. Improving the quality of distribution estimations made using incomplete samples is highly important. Missing samples can be compensated for by applying conventional missing data restoration methods; however, ensuring that restored samples roughly follow underlying distributions of true missing data remains a challenge. Another strategy involves directly restoring the probability density function (PDF) for a sensor when samples are missing by leveraging distribution information from another sensor with complete data using distribution regression techniques; existing methods include the conventional distribution-to-distribution regression (DDR) and distribution-to-warping function regression (DWR) methods. Due to constraints on PDFs and warping functions, the regression functions of both methods are estimated from the Nadaraya-Watson kernel estimator with relatively low degrees of precision. This article proposes a new indirect distribution-to-distribution regression method in the context of functional data analysis, and apply it to restore distributions of missing SHM data. PDFs are transformed to ordinary functions residing in a Hilbert space via the newly proposed log-quantile-density (LQD) transformation; the regression for distributions is realized in the transformed space via a functional regression model constructed based on the theory of Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space (RKHS), corresponding result is subsequently mapped back to the density space through the inverse LQD transformation. Test results using field monitoring data indicate that the new method significantly outperforms conventional methods in general cases; however, in extrapolation cases, the new method is inferior to the distribution-to-warping function regression method.


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