Wenlin Wang

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  • InverseNet: Solving Inverse Problems with Splitting Networks

    We propose a new method that uses deep learning techniques to solve the inverse problems. The inverse problem is cast in the form of learning an end-to-end mapping from observed data to the ground-truth. Inspired by the splitting strategy widely used in regularized iterative algorithm to tackle inverse problems, the mapping is decomposed into two networks, with one handling the inversion of the physical forward model associated with the data term and one handling the denoising of the output from the former network, i.e., the inverted version, associated with the prior/regularization term. The two networks are trained jointly to learn the end-to-end mapping, getting rid of a two-step training. The training is annealing as the intermediate variable between these two networks bridges the gap between the input (the degraded version of output) and output and progressively approaches to the ground-truth. The proposed network, referred to as InverseNet, is flexible in the sense that most of the existing end-to-end network structure can be leveraged in the first network and most of the existing denoising network structure can be used in the second one. Extensive experiments on both synthetic data and real datasets on the tasks, motion deblurring, super-resolution, and colorization, demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method compared with other image processing algorithms.

    12/01/2017 ∙ by Kai Fan, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Zero-Shot Learning via Class-Conditioned Deep Generative Models

    We present a deep generative model for learning to predict classes not seen at training time. Unlike most existing methods for this problem, that represent each class as a point (via a semantic embedding), we represent each seen/unseen class using a class-specific latent-space distribution, conditioned on class attributes. We use these latent-space distributions as a prior for a supervised variational autoencoder (VAE), which also facilitates learning highly discriminative feature representations for the inputs. The entire framework is learned end-to-end using only the seen-class training data. The model infers corresponding attributes of a test image by maximizing the VAE lower bound; the inferred attributes may be linked to labels not seen when training. We further extend our model to a (1) semi-supervised/transductive setting by leveraging unlabeled unseen-class data via an unsupervised learning module, and (2) few-shot learning where we also have a small number of labeled inputs from the unseen classes. We compare our model with several state-of-the-art methods through a comprehensive set of experiments on a variety of benchmark data sets.

    11/15/2017 ∙ by Wenlin Wang, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • A Convergence Analysis for A Class of Practical Variance-Reduction Stochastic Gradient MCMC

    Stochastic gradient Markov Chain Monte Carlo (SG-MCMC) has been developed as a flexible family of scalable Bayesian sampling algorithms. However, there has been little theoretical analysis of the impact of minibatch size to the algorithm's convergence rate. In this paper, we prove that under a limited computational budget/time, a larger minibatch size leads to a faster decrease of the mean squared error bound (thus the fastest one corresponds to using full gradients), which motivates the necessity of variance reduction in SG-MCMC. Consequently, by borrowing ideas from stochastic optimization, we propose a practical variance-reduction technique for SG-MCMC, that is efficient in both computation and storage. We develop theory to prove that our algorithm induces a faster convergence rate than standard SG-MCMC. A number of large-scale experiments, ranging from Bayesian learning of logistic regression to deep neural networks, validate the theory and demonstrate the superiority of the proposed variance-reduction SG-MCMC framework.

    09/04/2017 ∙ by Changyou Chen, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Continuous-Time Flows for Deep Generative Models

    Normalizing flows have been developed recently as a method for drawing samples from an arbitrary distribution. This method is attractive due to its intrinsic ability to approximate a target distribution arbitrarily well. In practice, however, normalizing flows only consist of a finite number of deterministic transformations, and thus there is no guarantees on the approximation accuracy. In this paper we study the problem of learning deep generative models with continuous-time flows (CTFs), a family of diffusion-based methods that are able to asymptotically approach a target distribution. We discretize the CTF to make training feasible, and develop theory on the approximation error. A framework is then adopted to distill knowledge from a CTF to an efficient inference network. We apply the technique to deep generative models, including a CTF-based variational autoencoder and an adversarial-network-like density estimator. Experiments on various tasks demonstrate the superiority of the proposed CTF framework compared to existing techniques.

    09/04/2017 ∙ by Changyou Chen, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Topic Compositional Neural Language Model

    We propose a Topic Compositional Neural Language Model (TCNLM), a novel method designed to simultaneously capture both the global semantic meaning and the local word ordering structure in a document. The TCNLM learns the global semantic coherence of a document via a neural topic model, and the probability of each learned latent topic is further used to build a Mixture-of-Experts (MoE) language model, where each expert (corresponding to one topic) is a recurrent neural network (RNN) that accounts for learning the local structure of a word sequence. In order to train the MoE model efficiently, a matrix factorization method is applied, by extending each weight matrix of the RNN to be an ensemble of topic-dependent weight matrices. The degree to which each member of the ensemble is used is tied to the document-dependent probability of the corresponding topics. Experimental results on several corpora show that the proposed approach outperforms both a pure RNN-based model and other topic-guided language models. Further, our model yields sensible topics, and also has the capacity to generate meaningful sentences conditioned on given topics.

    12/28/2017 ∙ by Wenlin Wang, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Wide Compression: Tensor Ring Nets

    Deep neural networks have demonstrated state-of-the-art performance in a variety of real-world applications. In order to obtain performance gains, these networks have grown larger and deeper, containing millions or even billions of parameters and over a thousand layers. The trade-off is that these large architectures require an enormous amount of memory, storage, and computation, thus limiting their usability. Inspired by the recent tensor ring factorization, we introduce Tensor Ring Networks (TR-Nets), which significantly compress both the fully connected layers and the convolutional layers of deep neural networks. Our results show that our TR-Nets approach is able to compress LeNet-5 by 11× without losing accuracy, and can compress the state-of-the-art Wide ResNet by 243× with only 2.3% degradation in Cifar10 image classification. Overall, this compression scheme shows promise in scientific computing and deep learning, especially for emerging resource-constrained devices such as smartphones, wearables, and IoT devices.

    02/25/2018 ∙ by Wenqi Wang, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Joint Embedding of Words and Labels for Text Classification

    Word embeddings are effective intermediate representations for capturing semantic regularities between words, when learning the representations of text sequences. We propose to view text classification as a label-word joint embedding problem: each label is embedded in the same space with the word vectors. We introduce an attention framework that measures the compatibility of embeddings between text sequences and labels. The attention is learned on a training set of labeled samples to ensure that, given a text sequence, the relevant words are weighted higher than the irrelevant ones. Our method maintains the interpretability of word embeddings, and enjoys a built-in ability to leverage alternative sources of information, in addition to input text sequences. Extensive results on the several large text datasets show that the proposed framework outperforms the state-of-the-art methods by a large margin, in terms of both accuracy and speed.

    05/10/2018 ∙ by Guoyin Wang, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • A Unified Particle-Optimization Framework for Scalable Bayesian Sampling

    There has been recent interest in developing scalable Bayesian sampling methods for big-data analysis, such as stochastic gradient MCMC (SG-MCMC) and Stein variational gradient descent (SVGD). A standard SG-MCMC algorithm simulates samples from a discrete-time Markov chain to approximate a target distribution, thus samples could be highly correlated, an undesired property for SG-MCMC. In contrary, SVGD directly optimizes a set of particles to approximate a target distribution, and thus is able to obtain good approximate with relatively much fewer samples. In this paper, we propose a principle particle-optimization framework based on Wasserstein gradient flows to unify SG-MCMC and SVGD, and to allow new algorithms to be developed. Our framework interprets SG-MCMC as particle optimization, revealing strong connections between SG-MCMC and SVGD. The key component of our framework is several particle-approximate techniques to efficiently solve the original partial differential equations on the space of probability measures. Extensive experiments on both synthetic data and deep neural networks demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our framework for scalable Bayesian sampling.

    05/29/2018 ∙ by Changyou Chen, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Baseline Needs More Love: On Simple Word-Embedding-Based Models and Associated Pooling Mechanisms

    Many deep learning architectures have been proposed to model the compositionality in text sequences, requiring a substantial number of parameters and expensive computations. However, there has not been a rigorous evaluation regarding the added value of sophisticated compositional functions. In this paper, we conduct a point-by-point comparative study between Simple Word-Embedding-based Models (SWEMs), consisting of parameter-free pooling operations, relative to word-embedding-based RNN/CNN models. Surprisingly, SWEMs exhibit comparable or even superior performance in the majority of cases considered. Based upon this understanding, we propose two additional pooling strategies over learned word embeddings: (i) a max-pooling operation for improved interpretability; and (ii) a hierarchical pooling operation, which preserves spatial (n-gram) information within text sequences. We present experiments on 17 datasets encompassing three tasks: (i) (long) document classification; (ii) text sequence matching; and (iii) short text tasks, including classification and tagging. The source code and datasets can be obtained from https:// github.com/dinghanshen/SWEM.

    05/24/2018 ∙ by Dinghan Shen, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • NASH: Toward End-to-End Neural Architecture for Generative Semantic Hashing

    Semantic hashing has become a powerful paradigm for fast similarity search in many information retrieval systems. While fairly successful, previous techniques generally require two-stage training, and the binary constraints are handled ad-hoc. In this paper, we present an end-to-end Neural Architecture for Semantic Hashing (NASH), where the binary hashing codes are treated as Bernoulli latent variables. A neural variational inference framework is proposed for training, where gradients are directly back-propagated through the discrete latent variable to optimize the hash function. We also draw connections between proposed method and rate-distortion theory, which provides a theoretical foundation for the effectiveness of the proposed framework. Experimental results on three public datasets demonstrate that our method significantly outperforms several state-of-the-art models on both unsupervised and supervised scenarios.

    05/14/2018 ∙ by Dinghan Shen, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Distilled Wasserstein Learning for Word Embedding and Topic Modeling

    We propose a novel Wasserstein method with a distillation mechanism, yielding joint learning of word embeddings and topics. The proposed method is based on the fact that the Euclidean distance between word embeddings may be employed as the underlying distance in the Wasserstein topic model. The word distributions of topics, their optimal transports to the word distributions of documents, and the embeddings of words are learned in a unified framework. When learning the topic model, we leverage a distilled underlying distance matrix to update the topic distributions and smoothly calculate the corresponding optimal transports. Such a strategy provides the updating of word embeddings with robust guidance, improving the algorithmic convergence. As an application, we focus on patient admission records, in which the proposed method embeds the codes of diseases and procedures and learns the topics of admissions, obtaining superior performance on clinically-meaningful disease network construction, mortality prediction as a function of admission codes, and procedure recommendation.

    09/12/2018 ∙ by Hongteng Xu, et al. ∙ 0 share

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