We present an integral framework for training sketch simplification networks that convert challenging rough sketches into clean line drawings. Our approach augments a simplification network with a discriminator network, training both networks jointly so that the discriminator network discerns whether a line drawing is a real training data or the output of the simplification network, which in turn tries to fool it. This approach has two major advantages. First, because the discriminator network learns the structure in line drawings, it encourages the output sketches of the simplification network to be more similar in appearance to the training sketches. Second, we can also train the simplification network with additional unsupervised data, using the discriminator network as a substitute teacher. Thus, by adding only rough sketches without simplified line drawings, or only line drawings without the original rough sketches, we can improve the quality of the sketch simplification. We show how our framework can be used to train models that significantly outperform the state of the art in the sketch simplification task, despite using the same architecture for inference. We additionally present an approach to optimize for a single image, which improves accuracy at the cost of additional computation time. Finally, we show that, using the same framework, it is possible to train the network to perform the inverse problem, i.e., convert simple line sketches into pencil drawings, which is not possible using the standard mean squared error loss. We validate our framework with two user tests, where our approach is preferred to the state of the art in sketch simplification 92.3 5.
03/27/2017 ∙ by Edgar Simo-Serra, et al. ∙ 0 ∙ share
Many CT slice images are stored with large slice intervals to reduce storage size in clinical practice. This leads to low resolution perpendicular to the slice images (i.e., z-axis), which is insufficient for 3D visualization or image analysis. In this paper, we present a novel architecture based on conditional Generative Adversarial Networks (cGANs) with the goal of generating high resolution images of main body parts including head, chest, abdomen and legs. However, GANs are known to have a difficulty with generating a diversity of patterns due to a phenomena known as mode collapse. To overcome the lack of generated pattern variety, we propose to condition the discriminator on the different body parts. Furthermore, our generator networks are extended to be three dimensional fully convolutional neural networks, allowing for the generation of high resolution images from arbitrary fields of view. In our verification tests, we show that the proposed method obtains the best scores by PSNR/SSIM metrics and Visual Turing Test, allowing for accurate reproduction of the principle anatomy in high resolution. We expect that the proposed method contribute to effective utilization of the existing vast amounts of thick CT images stored in hospitals.
08/30/2019 ∙ by Akira Kudo, et al. ∙ 0 ∙ share