Laura Balzano

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Assistant Professor in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at the University of Michigan

  • Subspace Clustering using Ensembles of K-Subspaces

    We present a novel approach to the subspace clustering problem that leverages ensembles of the K-subspaces (KSS) algorithm via the evidence accumulation clustering framework. Our algorithm forms a co-association matrix whose (i,j)th entry is the number of times points i and j are clustered together by several runs of KSS with random initializations. We analyze the entries of this co-association matrix and show that a naive version of our algorithm can recover subspaces for points drawn from the same conditions as the Thresholded Subspace Clustering algorithm. We show on synthetic data that our method performs well under subspaces with large intersection, subspaces with small principal angles, and noisy data. Finally, we provide a variant of our algorithm that achieves state-of-the-art performance across several benchmark datasets, including a resulting error for the COIL-20 database that is less than half that achieved by existing algorithms.

    09/14/2017 ∙ by John Lipor, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Algebraic Variety Models for High-Rank Matrix Completion

    We consider a generalization of low-rank matrix completion to the case where the data belongs to an algebraic variety, i.e. each data point is a solution to a system of polynomial equations. In this case the original matrix is possibly high-rank, but it becomes low-rank after mapping each column to a higher dimensional space of monomial features. Many well-studied extensions of linear models, including affine subspaces and their union, can be described by a variety model. In addition, varieties can be used to model a richer class of nonlinear quadratic and higher degree curves and surfaces. We study the sampling requirements for matrix completion under a variety model with a focus on a union of affine subspaces. We also propose an efficient matrix completion algorithm that minimizes a convex or non-convex surrogate of the rank of the matrix of monomial features. Our algorithm uses the well-known "kernel trick" to avoid working directly with the high-dimensional monomial matrix. We show the proposed algorithm is able to recover synthetically generated data up to the predicted sampling complexity bounds. The proposed algorithm also outperforms standard low rank matrix completion and subspace clustering techniques in experiments with real data.

    03/28/2017 ∙ by Greg Ongie, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Real-Time Energy Disaggregation of a Distribution Feeder's Demand Using Online Learning

    Though distribution system operators have been adding more sensors to their networks, they still often lack an accurate real-time picture of the behavior of distributed energy resources such as demand responsive electric loads and residential solar generation. Such information could improve system reliability, economic efficiency, and environmental impact. Rather than installing additional, costly sensing and communication infrastructure to obtain additional real-time information, it may be possible to use existing sensing capabilities and leverage knowledge about the system to reduce the need for new infrastructure. In this paper, we disaggregate a distribution feeder's demand measurements into two components: 1) the demand of a population of air conditioners, and 2) the demand of the remaining loads connected to the feeder. We use an online learning algorithm, Dynamic Fixed Share (DFS), that uses the real-time distribution feeder measurements as well as models generated from historical building- and device-level data. We develop two implementations of the algorithm and conduct simulations using real demand data from households and commercial buildings to investigate the effectiveness of the algorithm. Case studies demonstrate that DFS can effectively perform online disaggregation and the choice and construction of models included in the algorithm affects its accuracy, which is comparable to that of a set of Kalman filters.

    01/16/2017 ∙ by Gregory S. Ledva, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Towards a Theoretical Analysis of PCA for Heteroscedastic Data

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a method for estimating a subspace given noisy samples. It is useful in a variety of problems ranging from dimensionality reduction to anomaly detection and the visualization of high dimensional data. PCA performs well in the presence of moderate noise and even with missing data, but is also sensitive to outliers. PCA is also known to have a phase transition when noise is independent and identically distributed; recovery of the subspace sharply declines at a threshold noise variance. Effective use of PCA requires a rigorous understanding of these behaviors. This paper provides a step towards an analysis of PCA for samples with heteroscedastic noise, that is, samples that have non-uniform noise variances and so are no longer identically distributed. In particular, we provide a simple asymptotic prediction of the recovery of a one-dimensional subspace from noisy heteroscedastic samples. The prediction enables: a) easy and efficient calculation of the asymptotic performance, and b) qualitative reasoning to understand how PCA is impacted by heteroscedasticity (such as outliers).

    10/12/2016 ∙ by David Hong, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Convergence of a Grassmannian Gradient Descent Algorithm for Subspace Estimation From Undersampled Data

    Subspace learning and matrix factorization problems have a great many applications in science and engineering, and efficient algorithms are critical as dataset sizes continue to grow. Many relevant problem formulations are non-convex, and in a variety of contexts it has been observed that solving the non-convex problem directly is not only efficient but reliably accurate. We discuss convergence theory for a particular method: first order incremental gradient descent constrained to the Grassmannian. The output of the algorithm is an orthonormal basis for a d-dimensional subspace spanned by an input streaming data matrix. We study two sampling cases: where each data vector of the streaming matrix is fully sampled, or where it is undersampled by a sampling matrix A_t∈^m× n with m≪ n. We propose an adaptive stepsize scheme that depends only on the sampled data and algorithm outputs. We prove that with fully sampled data, the stepsize scheme maximizes the improvement of our convergence metric at each iteration, and this method converges from any random initialization to the true subspace, despite the non-convex formulation and orthogonality constraints. For the case of undersampled data, we establish monotonic improvement on the defined convergence metric for each iteration with high probability.

    10/01/2016 ∙ by Dejiao Zhang, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Deep Unsupervised Clustering Using Mixture of Autoencoders

    Unsupervised clustering is one of the most fundamental challenges in machine learning. A popular hypothesis is that data are generated from a union of low-dimensional nonlinear manifolds; thus an approach to clustering is identifying and separating these manifolds. In this paper, we present a novel approach to solve this problem by using a mixture of autoencoders. Our model consists of two parts: 1) a collection of autoencoders where each autoencoder learns the underlying manifold of a group of similar objects, and 2) a mixture assignment neural network, which takes the concatenated latent vectors from the autoencoders as input and infers the distribution over clusters. By jointly optimizing the two parts, we simultaneously assign data to clusters and learn the underlying manifolds of each cluster.

    12/21/2017 ∙ by Dejiao Zhang, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • On Learning High Dimensional Structured Single Index Models

    Single Index Models (SIMs) are simple yet flexible semi-parametric models for machine learning, where the response variable is modeled as a monotonic function of a linear combination of features. Estimation in this context requires learning both the feature weights and the nonlinear function that relates features to observations. While methods have been described to learn SIMs in the low dimensional regime, a method that can efficiently learn SIMs in high dimensions, and under general structural assumptions, has not been forthcoming. In this paper, we propose computationally efficient algorithms for SIM inference in high dimensions with structural constraints. Our general approach specializes to sparsity, group sparsity, and low-rank assumptions among others. Experiments show that the proposed method enjoys superior predictive performance when compared to generalized linear models, and achieves results comparable to or better than single layer feedforward neural networks with significantly less computational cost.

    03/13/2016 ∙ by Nikhil Rao, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Matrix Completion Under Monotonic Single Index Models

    Most recent results in matrix completion assume that the matrix under consideration is low-rank or that the columns are in a union of low-rank subspaces. In real-world settings, however, the linear structure underlying these models is distorted by a (typically unknown) nonlinear transformation. This paper addresses the challenge of matrix completion in the face of such nonlinearities. Given a few observations of a matrix that are obtained by applying a Lipschitz, monotonic function to a low rank matrix, our task is to estimate the remaining unobserved entries. We propose a novel matrix completion method that alternates between low-rank matrix estimation and monotonic function estimation to estimate the missing matrix elements. Mean squared error bounds provide insight into how well the matrix can be estimated based on the size, rank of the matrix and properties of the nonlinear transformation. Empirical results on synthetic and real-world datasets demonstrate the competitiveness of the proposed approach.

    12/29/2015 ∙ by Ravi Ganti, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Distance-Penalized Active Learning Using Quantile Search

    Adaptive sampling theory has shown that, with proper assumptions on the signal class, algorithms exist to reconstruct a signal in R^d with an optimal number of samples. We generalize this problem to the case of spatial signals, where the sampling cost is a function of both the number of samples taken and the distance traveled during estimation. This is motivated by our work studying regions of low oxygen concentration in the Great Lakes. We show that for one-dimensional threshold classifiers, a tradeoff between the number of samples taken and distance traveled can be achieved using a generalization of binary search, which we refer to as quantile search. We characterize both the estimation error after a fixed number of samples and the distance traveled in the noiseless case, as well as the estimation error in the case of noisy measurements. We illustrate our results in both simulations and experiments and show that our method outperforms existing algorithms in the majority of practical scenarios.

    09/28/2015 ∙ by John Lipor, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Leveraging Union of Subspace Structure to Improve Constrained Clustering

    Many clustering problems in computer vision and other contexts are also classification problems, where each cluster shares a meaningful label. Subspace clustering algorithms in particular are often applied to problems that fit this description, for example with face images or handwritten digits. While it is straightforward to request human input on these datasets, our goal is to reduce this input as much as possible. We present a pairwise-constrained clustering algorithm that actively selects queries based on the union-of-subspaces model. The central step of the algorithm is in querying points of minimum margin between estimated subspaces; analogous to classifier margin, these lie near the decision boundary. We prove that points lying near the intersection of subspaces are points with low margin. Our procedure can be used after any subspace clustering algorithm that outputs an affinity matrix. We demonstrate on several datasets that our algorithm drives the clustering error down considerably faster than the state-of-the-art active query algorithms on datasets with subspace structure and is competitive on other datasets.

    08/06/2016 ∙ by John Lipor, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Global Convergence of a Grassmannian Gradient Descent Algorithm for Subspace Estimation

    It has been observed in a variety of contexts that gradient descent methods have great success in solving low-rank matrix factorization problems, despite the relevant problem formulation being non-convex. We tackle a particular instance of this scenario, where we seek the d-dimensional subspace spanned by a streaming data matrix. We apply the natural first order incremental gradient descent method, constraining the gradient method to the Grassmannian. In this paper, we propose an adaptive step size scheme that is greedy for the noiseless case, that maximizes the improvement of our metric of convergence at each data index t, and yields an expected improvement for the noisy case. We show that, with noise-free data, this method converges from any random initialization to the global minimum of the problem. For noisy data, we provide the expected convergence rate of the proposed algorithm per iteration.

    06/24/2015 ∙ by Dejiao Zhang, et al. ∙ 0 share

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