Jiayu Zhou

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  • Learning A Task-Specific Deep Architecture For Clustering

    While sparse coding-based clustering methods have shown to be successful, their bottlenecks in both efficiency and scalability limit the practical usage. In recent years, deep learning has been proved to be a highly effective, efficient and scalable feature learning tool. In this paper, we propose to emulate the sparse coding-based clustering pipeline in the context of deep learning, leading to a carefully crafted deep model benefiting from both. A feed-forward network structure, named TAGnet, is constructed based on a graph-regularized sparse coding algorithm. It is then trained with task-specific loss functions from end to end. We discover that connecting deep learning to sparse coding benefits not only the model performance, but also its initialization and interpretation. Moreover, by introducing auxiliary clustering tasks to the intermediate feature hierarchy, we formulate DTAGnet and obtain a further performance boost. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed model gains remarkable margins over several state-of-the-art methods.

    09/01/2015 ∙ by Zhangyang Wang, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • A Safe Screening Rule for Sparse Logistic Regression

    The l1-regularized logistic regression (or sparse logistic regression) is a widely used method for simultaneous classification and feature selection. Although many recent efforts have been devoted to its efficient implementation, its application to high dimensional data still poses significant challenges. In this paper, we present a fast and effective sparse logistic regression screening rule (Slores) to identify the 0 components in the solution vector, which may lead to a substantial reduction in the number of features to be entered to the optimization. An appealing feature of Slores is that the data set needs to be scanned only once to run the screening and its computational cost is negligible compared to that of solving the sparse logistic regression problem. Moreover, Slores is independent of solvers for sparse logistic regression, thus Slores can be integrated with any existing solver to improve the efficiency. We have evaluated Slores using high-dimensional data sets from different applications. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that Slores outperforms the existing state-of-the-art screening rules and the efficiency of solving sparse logistic regression is improved by one magnitude in general.

    07/16/2013 ∙ by Jie Wang, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Identify Susceptible Locations in Medical Records via Adversarial Attacks on Deep Predictive Models

    The surging availability of electronic medical records (EHR) leads to increased research interests in medical predictive modeling. Recently many deep learning based predicted models are also developed for EHR data and demonstrated impressive performance. However, a series of recent studies showed that these deep models are not safe: they suffer from certain vulnerabilities. In short, a well-trained deep network can be extremely sensitive to inputs with negligible changes. These inputs are referred to as adversarial examples. In the context of medical informatics, such attacks could alter the result of a high performance deep predictive model by slightly perturbing a patient's medical records. Such instability not only reflects the weakness of deep architectures, more importantly, it offers guide on detecting susceptible parts on the inputs. In this paper, we propose an efficient and effective framework that learns a time-preferential minimum attack targeting the LSTM model with EHR inputs, and we leverage this attack strategy to screen medical records of patients and identify susceptible events and measurements. The efficient screening procedure can assist decision makers to pay extra attentions to the locations that can cause severe consequence if not measured correctly. We conduct extensive empirical studies on a real-world urgent care cohort and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed screening approach.

    02/13/2018 ∙ by Mengying Sun, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Subspace Network: Deep Multi-Task Censored Regression for Modeling Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Over the past decade a wide spectrum of machine learning models have been developed to model the neurodegenerative diseases, associating biomarkers, especially non-intrusive neuroimaging markers, with key clinical scores measuring the cognitive status of patients. Multi-task learning (MTL) has been commonly utilized by these studies to address high dimensionality and small cohort size challenges. However, most existing MTL approaches are based on linear models and suffer from two major limitations: 1) they cannot explicitly consider upper/lower bounds in these clinical scores; 2) they lack the capability to capture complicated non-linear interactions among the variables. In this paper, we propose Subspace Network, an efficient deep modeling approach for non-linear multi-task censored regression. Each layer of the subspace network performs a multi-task censored regression to improve upon the predictions from the last layer via sketching a low-dimensional subspace to perform knowledge transfer among learning tasks. Under mild assumptions, for each layer the parametric subspace can be recovered using only one pass of training data. Empirical results demonstrate that the proposed subspace network quickly picks up the correct parameter subspaces, and outperforms state-of-the-arts in predicting neurodegenerative clinical scores using information in brain imaging.

    02/19/2018 ∙ by Mengying Sun, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Distributed Data Vending on Blockchain

    Recent advances in blockchain technologies have provided exciting opportunities for decentralized applications. Specifically, blockchain-based smart contracts enable credible transactions without authorized third parties. The attractive properties of smart contracts facilitate distributed data vending, allowing for proprietary data to be securely exchanged on a blockchain. Distributed data vending can transform domains such as healthcare by encouraging data distribution from owners and enabling large-scale data aggregation. However, one key challenge in distributed data vending is the trade-off dilemma between the effectiveness of data retrieval, and the leakage risk from indexing the data. In this paper, we propose a framework for distributed data vending through a combination of data embedding and similarity learning. We illustrate our framework through a practical scenario of distributing and aggregating electronic medical records on a blockchain. Extensive empirical results demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework.

    03/15/2018 ∙ by Jiayu Zhou, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • EdgeChain: Blockchain-based Multi-vendor Mobile Edge Application Placement

    The state-of-the-art mobile edge applications are generating intense traffic and posing rigorous latency requirements to service providers. While resource sharing across multiple service providers can be a way to maximize the utilization of limited resources at the network edge, it requires a centralized repository maintained by all parties for service providers to share status. Moreover, service providers have to trust each other for resource allocation fairness, which is difficult because of potential conflicts of interest. We propose EdgeChain, a blockchain-based architecture to make mobile edge application placement decisions for multiple service providers. We first formulate a stochastic programming problem minimizing the placement cost for mobile edge application placement scenarios. Based on our model, we present a heuristic mobile edge application placement algorithm. As a decentralized public ledger, the blockchain then takes the logic of our algorithm as the smart contract, with the consideration of resources from all mobile edge hosts participating in the system. The algorithm is agreed by all parties and the results will only be accepted by majority of the mining nodes on the blockchain. When a placement decision is made, an edge host meeting the consumer's latency and budget requirements will be selected at the lowest cost. All placement transactions are stored on the blockchain and are traceable by every mobile edge service provider and application vendor who consumes resources at the mobile edge.

    01/12/2018 ∙ by He Zhu, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Improving Mild Cognitive Impairment Prediction via Reinforcement Learning and Dialogue Simulation

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a prodromal phase in the progression from normal aging to dementia, especially Alzheimers disease. Even though there is mild cognitive decline in MCI patients, they have normal overall cognition and thus is challenging to distinguish from normal aging. Using transcribed data obtained from recorded conversational interactions between participants and trained interviewers, and applying supervised learning models to these data, a recent clinical trial has shown a promising result in differentiating MCI from normal aging. However, the substantial amount of interactions with medical staff can still incur significant medical care expenses in practice. In this paper, we propose a novel reinforcement learning (RL) framework to train an efficient dialogue agent on existing transcripts from clinical trials. Specifically, the agent is trained to sketch disease-specific lexical probability distribution, and thus to converse in a way that maximizes the diagnosis accuracy and minimizes the number of conversation turns. We evaluate the performance of the proposed reinforcement learning framework on the MCI diagnosis from a real clinical trial. The results show that while using only a few turns of conversation, our framework can significantly outperform state-of-the-art supervised learning approaches.

    02/18/2018 ∙ by Fengyi Tang, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Differentially Private Generative Adversarial Network

    Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) and its variants have recently attracted intensive research interests due to their elegant theoretical foundation and excellent empirical performance as generative models. These tools provide a promising direction in the studies where data availability is limited. One common issue in GANs is that the density of the learned generative distribution could concentrate on the training data points, meaning that they can easily remember training samples due to the high model complexity of deep networks. This becomes a major concern when GANs are applied to private or sensitive data such as patient medical records, and the concentration of distribution may divulge critical patient information. To address this issue, in this paper we propose a differentially private GAN (DPGAN) model, in which we achieve differential privacy in GANs by adding carefully designed noise to gradients during the learning procedure. We provide rigorous proof for the privacy guarantee, as well as comprehensive empirical evidence to support our analysis, where we demonstrate that our method can generate high quality data points at a reasonable privacy level.

    02/19/2018 ∙ by Liyang Xie, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Drug Similarity Integration Through Attentive Multi-view Graph Auto-Encoders

    Drug similarity has been studied to support downstream clinical tasks such as inferring novel properties of drugs (e.g. side effects, indications, interactions) from known properties. The growing availability of new types of drug features brings the opportunity of learning a more comprehensive and accurate drug similarity that represents the full spectrum of underlying drug relations. However, it is challenging to integrate these heterogeneous, noisy, nonlinear-related information to learn accurate similarity measures especially when labels are scarce. Moreover, there is a trade-off between accuracy and interpretability. In this paper, we propose to learn accurate and interpretable similarity measures from multiple types of drug features. In particular, we model the integration using multi-view graph auto-encoders, and add attentive mechanism to determine the weights for each view with respect to corresponding tasks and features for better interpretability. Our model has flexible design for both semi-supervised and unsupervised settings. Experimental results demonstrated significant predictive accuracy improvement. Case studies also showed better model capacity (e.g. embed node features) and interpretability.

    04/28/2018 ∙ by Tengfei Ma, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Multi-View Graph Convolutional Network and Its Applications on Neuroimage Analysis for Parkinson's Disease

    Parkinson's Disease (PD) is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases that affects tens of millions of Americans. PD is highly progressive and heterogeneous. Quite a few studies have been conducted in recent years on predictive or disease progression modeling of PD using clinical and biomarkers data. Neuroimaging, as another important information source for neurodegenerative disease, has also arisen considerable interests from the PD community. In this paper, we propose a deep learning method based on Graph Convolution Networks (GCN) for fusing multiple modalities in brain images to distinct PD cases from controls. On Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) cohort, our approach achieved 0.9537± 0.0587 AUC, compared with 0.6443± 0.0223 AUC achieved by traditional approaches such as PCA.

    05/22/2018 ∙ by Xi Zhang, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Model-Protected Multi-Task Learning

    Multi-task learning (MTL) refers to the paradigm of learning multiple related tasks together. By contrast, single-task learning (STL) learns each individual task independently. MTL often leads to better trained models because they can leverage the commonalities among related tasks. However, because MTL algorithms will "transmit" information on different models across different tasks, MTL poses a potential security risk. Specifically, an adversary may participate in the MTL process through a participating task, thereby acquiring the model information for another task. Previously proposed privacy-preserving MTL methods protect data instances rather than models, and some of them may underperform in comparison with STL methods. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving MTL framework to prevent the information on each model from leaking to other models based on a perturbation of the covariance matrix of the model matrix, and we study two popular MTL approaches for instantiation, namely, MTL approaches for learning the low-rank and group-sparse patterns of the model matrix. Our methods are built upon tools for differential privacy. Privacy guarantees and utility bounds are provided. Heterogeneous privacy budgets are considered. Our algorithms can be guaranteed not to underperform comparing with STL methods. Experiments demonstrate that our algorithms outperform existing privacy-preserving MTL methods on the proposed model-protection problem.

    09/18/2018 ∙ by Jian Liang, et al. ∙ 0 share

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