Jean Kossaifi

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  • Stochastically Rank-Regularized Tensor Regression Networks

    Over-parametrization of deep neural networks has recently been shown to be key to their successful training. However, it also renders them prone to overfitting and makes them expensive to store and train. Tensor regression networks significantly reduce the number of effective parameters in deep neural networks while retaining accuracy and the ease of training. They replace the flattening and fully-connected layers with a tensor regression layer, where the regression weights are expressed through the factors of a low-rank tensor decomposition. In this paper, to further improve tensor regression networks, we propose a novel stochastic rank-regularization. It consists of a novel randomized tensor sketching method to approximate the weights of tensor regression layers. We theoretically and empirically establish the link between our proposed stochastic rank-regularization and the dropout on low-rank tensor regression. Extensive experimental results with both synthetic data and real world datasets (i.e., CIFAR-100 and the UK Biobank brain MRI dataset) support that the proposed approach i) improves performance in both classification and regression tasks, ii) decreases overfitting, iii) leads to more stable training and iv) improves robustness to adversarial attacks and random noise.

    02/27/2019 ∙ by Arinbjörn Kolbeinsson, et al. ∙ 83 share

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  • T-Net: Parametrizing Fully Convolutional Nets with a Single High-Order Tensor

    Recent findings indicate that over-parametrization, while crucial for successfully training deep neural networks, also introduces large amounts of redundancy. Tensor methods have the potential to efficiently parametrize over-complete representations by leveraging this redundancy. In this paper, we propose to fully parametrize Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) with a single high-order, low-rank tensor. Previous works on network tensorization have focused on parametrizing individual layers (convolutional or fully connected) only, and perform the tensorization layer-by-layer separately. In contrast, we propose to jointly capture the full structure of a neural network by parametrizing it with a single high-order tensor, the modes of which represent each of the architectural design parameters of the network (e.g. number of convolutional blocks, depth, number of stacks, input features, etc). This parametrization allows to regularize the whole network and drastically reduce the number of parameters. Our model is end-to-end trainable and the low-rank structure imposed on the weight tensor acts as an implicit regularization. We study the case of networks with rich structure, namely Fully Convolutional Networks (FCNs), which we propose to parametrize with a single 8th-order tensor. We show that our approach can achieve superior performance with small compression rates, and attain high compression rates with negligible drop in accuracy for the challenging task of human pose estimation.

    04/04/2019 ∙ by Jean Kossaifi, et al. ∙ 16 share

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  • SEWA DB: A Rich Database for Audio-Visual Emotion and Sentiment Research in the Wild

    Natural human-computer interaction and audio-visual human behaviour sensing systems, which would achieve robust performance in-the-wild are more needed than ever as digital devices are becoming indispensable part of our life more and more. Accurately annotated real-world data are the crux in devising such systems. However, existing databases usually consider controlled settings, low demographic variability, and a single task. In this paper, we introduce the SEWA database of more than 2000 minutes of audio-visual data of 398 people coming from six cultures, 50 18 to 65 years old. Subjects were recorded in two different contexts: while watching adverts and while discussing adverts in a video chat. The database includes rich annotations of the recordings in terms of facial landmarks, facial action units (FAU), various vocalisations, mirroring, and continuously valued valence, arousal, liking, agreement, and prototypic examples of (dis)liking. This database aims to be an extremely valuable resource for researchers in affective computing and automatic human sensing and is expected to push forward the research in human behaviour analysis, including cultural studies. Along with the database, we provide extensive baseline experiments for automatic FAU detection and automatic valence, arousal and (dis)liking intensity estimation.

    01/09/2019 ∙ by Jean Kossaifi, et al. ∙ 8 share

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  • Incremental multi-domain learning with network latent tensor factorization

    The prominence of deep learning, large amount of annotated data and increasingly powerful hardware made it possible to reach remarkable performance for supervised classification tasks, in many cases saturating the training sets. However, adapting the learned classification to new domains remains a hard problem due to at least three reasons: (1) the domains and the tasks might be drastically different; (2) there might be very limited amount of annotated data on the new domain and (3) full training of a new model for each new task is prohibitive in terms of memory, due to the shear number of parameter of deep networks. Instead, new tasks should be learned incrementally, building on prior knowledge from already learned tasks, and without catastrophic forgetting, i.e. without hurting performance on prior tasks. To our knowledge this paper presents the first method for multi-domain/task learning without catastrophic forgetting using a fully tensorized architecture. Our main contribution is a method for multi-domain learning which models groups of identically structured blocks within a CNN as a high-order tensor. We show that this joint modelling naturally leverages correlations across different layers and results in more compact representations for each new task/domain over previous methods which have focused on adapting each layer separately. We apply the proposed method to 10 datasets of the Visual Decathlon Challenge and show that our method offers on average about 7.5x reduction in number of parameters and superior performance in terms of both classification accuracy and Decathlon score. In particular, our method outperforms all prior work on the Visual Decathlon Challenge.

    04/12/2019 ∙ by Adrian Bulat, et al. ∙ 8 share

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  • Matrix and tensor decompositions for training binary neural networks

    This paper is on improving the training of binary neural networks in which both activations and weights are binary. While prior methods for neural network binarization binarize each filter independently, we propose to instead parametrize the weight tensor of each layer using matrix or tensor decomposition. The binarization process is then performed using this latent parametrization, via a quantization function (e.g. sign function) applied to the reconstructed weights. A key feature of our method is that while the reconstruction is binarized, the computation in the latent factorized space is done in the real domain. This has several advantages: (i) the latent factorization enforces a coupling of the filters before binarization, which significantly improves the accuracy of the trained models. (ii) while at training time, the binary weights of each convolutional layer are parametrized using real-valued matrix or tensor decomposition, during inference we simply use the reconstructed (binary) weights. As a result, our method does not sacrifice any advantage of binary networks in terms of model compression and speeding-up inference. As a further contribution, instead of computing the binary weight scaling factors analytically, as in prior work, we propose to learn them discriminatively via back-propagation. Finally, we show that our approach significantly outperforms existing methods when tested on the challenging tasks of (a) human pose estimation (more than 4 (b) ImageNet classification (up to 5

    04/16/2019 ∙ by Adrian Bulat, et al. ∙ 6 share

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  • Improved training of binary networks for human pose estimation and image recognition

    Big neural networks trained on large datasets have advanced the state-of-the-art for a large variety of challenging problems, improving performance by a large margin. However, under low memory and limited computational power constraints, the accuracy on the same problems drops considerable. In this paper, we propose a series of techniques that significantly improve the accuracy of binarized neural networks (i.e networks where both the features and the weights are binary). We evaluate the proposed improvements on two diverse tasks: fine-grained recognition (human pose estimation) and large-scale image recognition (ImageNet classification). Specifically, we introduce a series of novel methodological changes including: (a) more appropriate activation functions, (b) reverse-order initialization, (c) progressive quantization, and (d) network stacking and show that these additions improve existing state-of-the-art network binarization techniques, significantly. Additionally, for the first time, we also investigate the extent to which network binarization and knowledge distillation can be combined. When tested on the challenging MPII dataset, our method shows a performance improvement of more than 4 findings by applying the proposed techniques for large-scale object recognition on the Imagenet dataset, on which we report a reduction of error rate by 4

    04/11/2019 ∙ by Adrian Bulat, et al. ∙ 4 share

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  • Efficient N-Dimensional Convolutions via Higher-Order Factorization

    With the unprecedented success of deep convolutional neural networks came the quest for training always deeper networks. However, while deeper neural networks give better performance when trained appropriately, that depth also translates in memory and computation heavy models, typically with tens of millions of parameters. Several methods have been proposed to leverage redundancies in the network to alleviate this complexity. Either a pretrained network is compressed, e.g. using a low-rank tensor decomposition, or the architecture of the network is directly modified to be more effective. In this paper, we study both approaches in a unified framework, under the lens of tensor decompositions. We show how tensor decomposition applied to the convolutional kernel relates to efficient architectures such as MobileNet. Moreover, we propose a tensor-based method for efficient higher order convolutions, which can be used as a plugin replacement for N-dimensional convolutions. We demonstrate their advantageous properties both theoretically and empirically for image classification, for both 2D and 3D convolutional networks.

    06/14/2019 ∙ by Jean Kossaifi, et al. ∙ 3 share

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  • GAGAN: Geometry-Aware Generative Adverserial Networks

    Deep generative models learned through adversarial training have become increasingly popular for their ability to generate naturalistic image textures. However, apart from the visual texture, the visual appearance of objects is significantly affected by their shape geometry, information which is not taken into account by existing generative models. This paper introduces the Geometry-Aware Generative Adversarial Network (GAGAN) for incorporating geometric information into the image generation process. Specifically, in GAGAN the generator samples latent variables from the probability space of a statistical shape model. By mapping the output of the generator to a canonical coordinate frame through a differentiable geometric transformation, we enforce the geometry of the objects and add an implicit connection from the prior to the generated object. Experimental results on face generation indicate that the GAGAN can generate realistic images of faces with arbitrary facial attributes such as facial expression, pose, and morphology, that are of better quality compared to current GAN-based methods. Finally, our method can be easily incorporated into and improve the quality of the images generated by any existing GAN architecture.

    12/03/2017 ∙ by Jean Kossaifi, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Machine Learning for Neuroimaging with Scikit-Learn

    Statistical machine learning methods are increasingly used for neuroimaging data analysis. Their main virtue is their ability to model high-dimensional datasets, e.g. multivariate analysis of activation images or resting-state time series. Supervised learning is typically used in decoding or encoding settings to relate brain images to behavioral or clinical observations, while unsupervised learning can uncover hidden structures in sets of images (e.g. resting state functional MRI) or find sub-populations in large cohorts. By considering different functional neuroimaging applications, we illustrate how scikit-learn, a Python machine learning library, can be used to perform some key analysis steps. Scikit-learn contains a very large set of statistical learning algorithms, both supervised and unsupervised, and its application to neuroimaging data provides a versatile tool to study the brain.

    12/12/2014 ∙ by Alexandre Abraham, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Stochastic Activation Pruning for Robust Adversarial Defense

    Neural networks are known to be vulnerable to adversarial examples. Carefully chosen perturbations to real images, while imperceptible to humans, induce misclassification and threaten the reliability of deep learning systems in the wild. To guard against adversarial examples, we take inspiration from game theory and cast the problem as a minimax zero-sum game between the adversary and the model. In general, for such games, the optimal strategy for both players requires a stochastic policy, also known as a mixed strategy. In this light, we propose Stochastic Activation Pruning (SAP), a mixed strategy for adversarial defense. SAP prunes a random subset of activations (preferentially pruning those with smaller magnitude) and scales up the survivors to compensate. We can apply SAP to pretrained networks, including adversarially trained models, without fine-tuning, providing robustness against adversarial examples. Experiments demonstrate that SAP confers robustness against attacks, increasing accuracy and preserving calibration.

    03/05/2018 ∙ by Guneet S. Dhillon, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Robust Conditional Generative Adversarial Networks

    Conditional generative adversarial networks (cGAN) have led to large improvements in the task of conditional image generation, which lies at the heart of computer vision. The major focus so far has been on performance improvement, while there has been little effort in making cGAN more robust to noise or leveraging structure in the output space of the model. The end-to-end regression (of the generator) might lead to arbitrarily large errors in the output, which is unsuitable for the application of such networks to real-world systems. In this work, we introduce a novel conditional GAN, called RoCGAN, which adds implicit constraints to address the issue. Our proposed model augments the generator with an unsupervised pathway, which encourages the outputs of the generator to span the target manifold even in the presence of large amounts of noise. We prove that RoCGAN shares similar theoretical properties as GAN and experimentally verify that the proposed model outperforms existing state-of-the-art cGAN architectures by a large margin in a variety of domains including images from natural scenes and faces.

    05/22/2018 ∙ by Grigorios G. Chrysos, et al. ∙ 0 share

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