Alexander M. Rush

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Assistant Professor, Harvard University

  • Visual Interaction with Deep Learning Models through Collaborative Semantic Inference

    Automation of tasks can have critical consequences when humans lose agency over decision processes. Deep learning models are particularly susceptible since current black-box approaches lack explainable reasoning. We argue that both the visual interface and model structure of deep learning systems need to take into account interaction design. We propose a framework of collaborative semantic inference (CSI) for the co-design of interactions and models to enable visual collaboration between humans and algorithms. The approach exposes the intermediate reasoning process of models which allows semantic interactions with the visual metaphors of a problem, which means that a user can both understand and control parts of the model reasoning process. We demonstrate the feasibility of CSI with a co-designed case study of a document summarization system.

    07/24/2019 ∙ by Sebastian Gehrmann, et al. ∙ 14 share

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  • End-to-End Content and Plan Selection for Data-to-Text Generation

    Learning to generate fluent natural language from structured data with neural networks has become an common approach for NLG. This problem can be challenging when the form of the structured data varies between examples. This paper presents a survey of several extensions to sequence-to-sequence models to account for the latent content selection process, particularly variants of copy attention and coverage decoding. We further propose a training method based on diverse ensembling to encourage models to learn distinct sentence templates during training. An empirical evaluation of these techniques shows an increase in the quality of generated text across five automated metrics, as well as human evaluation.

    10/10/2018 ∙ by Sebastian Gehrmann, et al. ∙ 2 share

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  • Weightless: Lossy Weight Encoding For Deep Neural Network Compression

    The large memory requirements of deep neural networks limit their deployment and adoption on many devices. Model compression methods effectively reduce the memory requirements of these models, usually through applying transformations such as weight pruning or quantization. In this paper, we present a novel scheme for lossy weight encoding which complements conventional compression techniques. The encoding is based on the Bloomier filter, a probabilistic data structure that can save space at the cost of introducing random errors. Leveraging the ability of neural networks to tolerate these imperfections and by re-training around the errors, the proposed technique, Weightless, can compress DNN weights by up to 496x with the same model accuracy. This results in up to a 1.51x improvement over the state-of-the-art.

    11/13/2017 ∙ by Brandon Reagen, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Dilated Convolutions for Modeling Long-Distance Genomic Dependencies

    We consider the task of detecting regulatory elements in the human genome directly from raw DNA. Past work has focused on small snippets of DNA, making it difficult to model long-distance dependencies that arise from DNA's 3-dimensional conformation. In order to study long-distance dependencies, we develop and release a novel dataset for a larger-context modeling task. Using this new data set we model long-distance interactions using dilated convolutional neural networks, and compare them to standard convolutions and recurrent neural networks. We show that dilated convolutions are effective at modeling the locations of regulatory markers in the human genome, such as transcription factor binding sites, histone modifications, and DNAse hypersensitivity sites.

    10/03/2017 ∙ by Ankit Gupta, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Lie-Access Neural Turing Machines

    External neural memory structures have recently become a popular tool for algorithmic deep learning (Graves et al. 2014, Weston et al. 2014). These models generally utilize differentiable versions of traditional discrete memory-access structures (random access, stacks, tapes) to provide the storage necessary for computational tasks. In this work, we argue that these neural memory systems lack specific structure important for relative indexing, and propose an alternative model, Lie-access memory, that is explicitly designed for the neural setting. In this paradigm, memory is accessed using a continuous head in a key-space manifold. The head is moved via Lie group actions, such as shifts or rotations, generated by a controller, and memory access is performed by linear smoothing in key space. We argue that Lie groups provide a natural generalization of discrete memory structures, such as Turing machines, as they provide inverse and identity operators while maintaining differentiability. To experiment with this approach, we implement a simplified Lie-access neural Turing machine (LANTM) with different Lie groups. We find that this approach is able to perform well on a range of algorithmic tasks.

    11/09/2016 ∙ by Greg Yang, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • A Tutorial on Dual Decomposition and Lagrangian Relaxation for Inference in Natural Language Processing

    Dual decomposition, and more generally Lagrangian relaxation, is a classical method for combinatorial optimization; it has recently been applied to several inference problems in natural language processing (NLP). This tutorial gives an overview of the technique. We describe example algorithms, describe formal guarantees for the method, and describe practical issues in implementing the algorithms. While our examples are predominantly drawn from the NLP literature, the material should be of general relevance to inference problems in machine learning. A central theme of this tutorial is that Lagrangian relaxation is naturally applied in conjunction with a broad class of combinatorial algorithms, allowing inference in models that go significantly beyond previous work on Lagrangian relaxation for inference in graphical models.

    01/23/2014 ∙ by Alexander M. Rush, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Image-to-Markup Generation with Coarse-to-Fine Attention

    We present a neural encoder-decoder model to convert images into presentational markup based on a scalable coarse-to-fine attention mechanism. Our method is evaluated in the context of image-to-LaTeX generation, and we introduce a new dataset of real-world rendered mathematical expressions paired with LaTeX markup. We show that unlike neural OCR techniques using CTC-based models, attention-based approaches can tackle this non-standard OCR task. Our approach outperforms classical mathematical OCR systems by a large margin on in-domain rendered data, and, with pretraining, also performs well on out-of-domain handwritten data. To reduce the inference complexity associated with the attention-based approaches, we introduce a new coarse-to-fine attention layer that selects a support region before applying attention.

    09/16/2016 ∙ by Yuntian Deng, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Adapting Sequence Models for Sentence Correction

    In a controlled experiment of sequence-to-sequence approaches for the task of sentence correction, we find that character-based models are generally more effective than word-based models and models that encode subword information via convolutions, and that modeling the output data as a series of diffs improves effectiveness over standard approaches. Our strongest sequence-to-sequence model improves over our strongest phrase-based statistical machine translation model, with access to the same data, by 6 M2 (0.5 GLEU) points. Additionally, in the data environment of the standard CoNLL-2014 setup, we demonstrate that modeling (and tuning against) diffs yields similar or better M2 scores with simpler models and/or significantly less data than previous sequence-to-sequence approaches.

    07/27/2017 ∙ by Allen Schmaltz, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Challenges in Data-to-Document Generation

    Recent neural models have shown significant progress on the problem of generating short descriptive texts conditioned on a small number of database records. In this work, we suggest a slightly more difficult data-to-text generation task, and investigate how effective current approaches are on this task. In particular, we introduce a new, large-scale corpus of data records paired with descriptive documents, propose a series of extractive evaluation methods for analyzing performance, and obtain baseline results using current neural generation methods. Experiments show that these models produce fluent text, but fail to convincingly approximate human-generated documents. Moreover, even templated baselines exceed the performance of these neural models on some metrics, though copy- and reconstruction-based extensions lead to noticeable improvements.

    07/25/2017 ∙ by Sam Wiseman, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Adversarially Regularized Autoencoders

    While autoencoders are a key technique in representation learning for continuous structures, such as images or wave forms, developing general-purpose autoencoders for discrete structures, such as text sequence or discretized images, has proven to be more challenging. In particular, discrete inputs make it more difficult to learn a smooth encoder that preserves the complex local relationships in the input space. In this work, we propose an adversarially regularized autoencoder (ARAE) with the goal of learning more robust discrete-space representations. ARAE jointly trains both a rich discrete-space encoder, such as an RNN, and a simpler continuous space generator function, while using generative adversarial network (GAN) training to constrain the distributions to be similar. This method yields a smoother contracted code space that maps similar inputs to nearby codes, and also an implicit latent variable GAN model for generation. Experiments on text and discretized images demonstrate that the GAN model produces clean interpolations and captures the multimodality of the original space, and that the autoencoder produces improve- ments in semi-supervised learning as well as state-of-the-art results in unaligned text style transfer task using only a shared continuous-space representation.

    06/13/2017 ∙ by Junbo, et al. ∙ 0 share

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  • Structured Attention Networks

    Attention networks have proven to be an effective approach for embedding categorical inference within a deep neural network. However, for many tasks we may want to model richer structural dependencies without abandoning end-to-end training. In this work, we experiment with incorporating richer structural distributions, encoded using graphical models, within deep networks. We show that these structured attention networks are simple extensions of the basic attention procedure, and that they allow for extending attention beyond the standard soft-selection approach, such as attending to partial segmentations or to subtrees. We experiment with two different classes of structured attention networks: a linear-chain conditional random field and a graph-based parsing model, and describe how these models can be practically implemented as neural network layers. Experiments show that this approach is effective for incorporating structural biases, and structured attention networks outperform baseline attention models on a variety of synthetic and real tasks: tree transduction, neural machine translation, question answering, and natural language inference. We further find that models trained in this way learn interesting unsupervised hidden representations that generalize simple attention.

    02/03/2017 ∙ by Yoon Kim, et al. ∙ 0 share

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