On Adversarial Removal of Hypothesis-only Bias in Natural Language Inference

07/09/2019 ∙ by Yonatan Belinkov, et al. ∙ Johns Hopkins University Harvard University 0

Popular Natural Language Inference (NLI) datasets have been shown to be tainted by hypothesis-only biases. Adversarial learning may help models ignore sensitive biases and spurious correlations in data. We evaluate whether adversarial learning can be used in NLI to encourage models to learn representations free of hypothesis-only biases. Our analyses indicate that the representations learned via adversarial learning may be less biased, with only small drops in NLI accuracy.



There are no comments yet.


page 1

page 2

page 3

page 4

This week in AI

Get the week's most popular data science and artificial intelligence research sent straight to your inbox every Saturday.

1 Introduction

Popular datasets for Natural Language Inference (NLI) - the task of determining whether one sentence (premise) likely entails another (hypothesis) - contain hypothesis-only biases that allow models to perform the task surprisingly well by only considering hypotheses while ignoring the corresponding premises. For instance, such a method correctly predicted the examples in Table 1 as contradictions. As datasets may always contain biases, it is important to analyze whether, and to what extent, models are immune to or rely on known biases. Furthermore, it is important to build models that can overcome these biases.

Recent work in NLP aims to build more robust systems using adversarial methods (Alzantot et al., 2018; Chen & Cardie, 2018; Belinkov & Bisk, 2018, i.a.). In particular, Elazar & Goldberg (2018) attempted to use adversarial training to remove demographic attributes from text data, with limited success. Inspired by this line of work, we use adversarial learning to add small components to an existing and popular NLI system that has been used to learn general sentence representations Conneau et al. (2017)

. The adversarial techniques include (1) using an external adversarial classifier conditioned on hypotheses alone, and (2) creating noisy, perturbed training examples. In our analyses we ask whether hidden, hypothesis-only biases are no longer present in the resulting sentence representations after adversarial learning. The goal is to build models with less bias, ideally while limiting the inevitable degradation in task performance. Our results suggest that progress on this goal may depend on which adversarial learning techniques are used.

Although recent work has applied adversarial learning to NLI Minervini & Riedel (2018); Kang et al. (2018), this is the first work to our knowledge that explicitly studies NLI models designed to ignore hypothesis-only biases.

A dog runs through the woods near a cottage
The dog is sleeping on the ground
A person writing something on a newspaper
A person is driving a fire truck
A man is doing tricks on a skateboard
Nobody is doing tricks
Table 1: Examples from SNLI’s development set that Poliak et al. (2018)’s hypothesis-only model correctly predicted as contradictions. The first line in each section is a premise and lines with are corresponding hypotheses. The italicized words are correlated with the “contradiction” label in SNLI

2 Methods

We consider two types of adversarial methods. In the first method, we incorporate an external classifier to force the hypothesis-encoder to ignore hypothesis-only biases. In the second method, we randomly swap premises in the training set to create noisy examples.

2.1 General NLI Model

Let denote a premise-hypothesis pair, denote an encoder that maps a sentence

to a vector representation

, and a classifier that maps to an output label . A general NLI framework contains the following components:

  • A premise encoder that maps the premise to a vector representation .

  • A hypothesis encoder that maps the hypothesis to a vector representation .

  • A classifier that combines and maps and to an output .

In this model, the premise and hypothesis are each encoded with separate encoders. The NLI classifier is usually trained to minimize the objective:


where is the cross-entropy loss. If is not used, a model should not be able to successfully perform NLI. However, models without may achieve non-trivial results, indicating the existence of biases in hypotheses (Gururangan et al., 2018; Poliak et al., 2018; Tsuchiya, 2018).

2.2 AdvCls: Adversarial Classifier

Our first approach, referred to as AdvCls, follows the common adversarial training method (Goodfellow et al., 2015; Ganin & Lempitsky, 2015; Xie et al., 2017; Zhang et al., 2018) by adding an additional adversarial classifier to our model. maps the hypothesis representation to an output . In domain adversarial learning, the classifier is typically used to predict unwanted features, e.g., protected attributes like race, age, or gender Elazar & Goldberg (2018). Here, we do not have explicit protected attributes but rather latent hypothesis-only biases. Therefore, we use to predict the NLI label given only the hypothesis. To successfully perform this prediction, needs to exploit latent biases in .

We modify the objective function (1) as

To control the interplay between and we set two hyper-parameters:

, the importance of the adversarial loss function, and

, a scaling factor that multiplies the gradients after reversing them. This is implemented by the scaled gradient reversal layer,  Ganin & Lempitsky (2015). The goal here is modify the representation so that it is maximally informative for NLI while simultaneously minimizes the ability of to accurately predict the NLI label.

2.3 AdvDat: Adversarial Training Data

For our second approach, which we call AdvDat, we use an unchanged general model, but train it with perturbed training data. For a fraction of example pairs in the training data, we replace with , a premise from another training example, chosen uniformly at random. For these instances, during back-propagation, we similarly reverse the gradient but only back-propagate through . The adversarial loss function is defined as:

where implements gradient blocking on by using the identity function in the forward step and a zero gradient during the backward step. At the same time, reverses the gradient going into and scales it by , as before.

We set a hyper-parameter that controls what fraction ’s are swapped at random. In turn, the final loss function combines the two losses based on as

In essence, this method penalizes the model for correctly predicting in perturbed examples where the premise is uninformative. This implicitly assumes that the label for () should be different than the label for (), which in practice does not always hold true.111As pointed out by a reviewer, a pair labeled as neutral might end up remaining neutral after randomly sampling the premise, so adversarially training in this case might weaken the model. Instead, one could limit adversarial training to cases of entailment or contradiction.

3 Experiments & Results

Experimental setup

Out of NLI datasets, Poliak et al. (2018) found that the Stanford Natural Language Inference dataset (SNLI; Bowman et al., 2015) contained the most (or worst) hypothesis-only biases —their hypothesis-only model outperformed the majority baseline by roughly (going from roughly to ). Because of the large magnitude of these biases, confirmed by Tsuchiya (2018) and Gururangan et al. (2018), we focus on SNLI. We use the standard SNLI split and report validation and test results. We also test on SNLI-hard, a subset of SNLI that Gururangan et al. (2018) filtered such that it may not contain unwanted artifacts.

We apply both adversarial techniques to InferSent Conneau et al. (2017), which serves as our general NLI architecture.222Code developed is available at https://github.com/azpoliak/robust-nli.

Following the standard training details used in InferSent, we encode premises and hypotheses separately using bi-directional long short-term memory (BiLSTM) networks  

Hochreiter & Schmidhuber (1997). Premises and hypotheses are initially mapped (token-by-token) to Glove Pennington et al. (2014)

representations. We use max-pooling over the BiLSTM states to extract premise and hypothesis representations and, following 

Mou et al. (2016), combine the representations by concatenating their vectors, their difference, and their multiplication (element-wise).

We use the default training hyper-parameters in the released InferSent codebase.333https://github.com/facebookresearch/InferSent These include setting the initial learning rate to and the decay rate to , using SGD optimization and dividing the learning rate by

at every epoch when the accuracy deceases on the validation set. The default settings also include stopping training either when the learning rate drops below

or after epochs. In both adversarial settings, the hyper-parameters are swept through .


Table 2 reports the results on SNLI, with the configurations that performed best on the validation set for each of the adversarial methods.

Model Val Test Hard 84.25 84.22 68.02
AdvCls 84.58 83.56 66.27
AdvDat 78.45 78.30 55.60
Table 2: Accuracies for the approaches. Baseline refers to the unmodified, non-adversarial InferSent.

As expected, both training methods perform worse than our unmodified, non-adversarial InferSent baseline on SNLI’s test set, since they remove biases that may be useful for performing this task. The difference for AdvCls is minimal, and it even slightly outperforms InferSent on the validation set. While AdvDat’s results are noticeably lower than the non-adversarial InferSent, the drops are still less than % points. 444This drop may indicate that SNLI-hard may still have biases, but, as pointed out by a reviewer, an alternative explanation is a general loss of information in the encoded hypothesis. However, Subsection 4.3 suggests that the loss of information is more focused on biases.

4 Analysis

Our goal is to determine whether adversarial learning can help build NLI models without hypothesis-only biases. We first ask whether the models’ learned sentence representations can be used by a hypothesis-only classifier to perform well. We then explore the effects of increasing the adversarial strength, and end with a discussion of indicator words associated with hypothesis-only biases.

(a) Hidden biases remaining from AdvCls
(b) Hidden biases remaining from AdvDat
Figure 1: Validation results when retraining a classifier on a frozen hypothesis encoder (, retrained) compared to our methods (), the adversarial hypothesis-only classifier (, in AdvCls), majority baseline, a random frozen encoder, and a hypothesis-only model.

4.1 Hidden Biases

(a) AdvCls
(b) AdvDat
Figure 2: Results on the validation set with different configurations of the adversarial methods.

Do the learned sentence representations eliminate hypothesis-only biases after adversarial training? We freeze sentence encoders trained with the studied methods, and retrain a new classifier that only accesses representations from the frozen hypothesis encoder. This helps us determine whether the (frozen) representations have hidden biases.

A few trends can be noticed. First, we confirm that with AdvCls (Figure 0(a)), the hypothesis-only classifier () is indeed trained to perform poorly on the task, while the normal NLI classifier () performs much better. However, retraining a classifier on frozen hypothesis representations (, retrained) boosts performance. In fact, the retrained classifier performs close to the fully trained hypothesis-only baseline, indicating the hypothesis representations still contain biases. Consistent with this finding,  Elazar & Goldberg (2018)

found that adversarially-trained text classifiers preserve demographic attributes in hidden representations despite efforts to remove them.

Score Percentage decrease from baseline
Word Count Baseline AdvCls (1,1) AdvDat (0.4,1) AdvDat (1,1)
sleeping 108 0.88 0.24 15.63 53.13 -81.25
driving 53 0.81 0.32 -8.33 50 -66.67
Nobody 52 1 0.42 14.29 42.86 14.29
alone 50 0.9 0.32 0 83.33 0
cat 49 0.84 0.31 7.14 57.14 -85.71
asleep 43 0.91 0.39 -18.75 50 12.5
no 31 0.84 0.36 0 52.94 -52.94
empty 28 0.93 0.3 -16.67 83.33 -16.67
eats 24 0.83 0.3 37.5 87.5 -25
naked 20 0.95 0.46 0 83.33 -33.33
Table 3: Indicator words and how correlated they are with CONTRADICTION predictions. The parentheses indicate hyper-parameter values: for AdvCls and for AdvDat. Baseline refers to the unmodified InferSent.

Interestingly, we found that even a frozen random encoder captures biases in the hypothesis, as a classifier trained on it performs fairly well (63.26%), and far above the majority class baseline (34.28%). One reason might be that the word embeddings (which are pre-trained) alone contain significant information that propagates even through a random encoder. Others have also found that random encodings contain non-trivial information (Conneau et al., 2018; Zhang & Bowman, 2018). The fact that the word embeddings were not updated during (adversarial) training could account for the ability to recover performance at the level of the classifier trained on a random encoder. This may indicate that future adversarial efforts should be applied to the word embeddings as well.

Turning to AdvDat, (Figure 0(b)), as the hyper-parameters increase, the models exhibit fewer biases. Performance even drops below the random encoder results, indicating it may be better at ignoring biases in the hypothesis. However, this comes at the cost of reduced NLI performance.

4.2 Adversarial Strength

Is there a correlation between adversarial strength and drops in SNLI performance? Does increasing adversarial hyper-parameters affect the decrease in results on SNLI?

Figure 2 shows the validation results with various configurations of adversarial hyper-parameters. The AdvCls method is fairly stable across configurations, although combinations of large and hurt the performance on SNLI a bit more (Figure 1(a)). Nevertheless, all the drops are moderate. Increasing the hyper-parameters further ( up to values of ), did not lead to substantial drops, although the results are slightly less stable across configurations (Appendix A). On the other hand, the AdvDat method is very sensitive to large hyper-parameters (Figure 1(b)). For every value of , increasing leads to significant performance drops. These drops happen sooner for larger values. Therefore, the effect of stronger hyper-parameters on SNLI performance seems to be specific to each adversarial method.

4.3 Indicator Words

Certain words in SNLI are more correlated with specific entailment labels than others, e.g., negation words (“not”, “nobody”, “no”) correlated with contradiction (Gururangan et al., 2018; Poliak et al., 2018). These words have been referred to as “give-away” words Poliak et al. (2018). Do the adversarial methods encourage models to make predictions that are less affected by these biased indicator words?

For each of the most biased words in SNLI associated with the contradiction

label, we computed the probability that a model predicts an example as a contradiction, given that the hypothesis contains the word. Table 

3 shows the top 10 examples in the training set. For each word , we give its frequency in SNLI, its empirical correlation with the label and with InferSent’s prediction, and the percentage decrease in correlations with contradiction predictions by three configurations of our methods. Generally, the baseline correlations are more uniform than the empirical ones (p̂), suggesting that indicator words in SNLI might not greatly affect a NLI model, a possibility that both Poliak et al. (2018) and Gururangan et al. (2018) do concede. For example, Gururangan et al. (2018) explicitly mention that “it is important to note that even the most discriminative words are not very frequent.”

However, we still observed small skews towards

contradiction. Thus, we investigate whether our methods reduce the probability of predicting contradiction when a hypothesis contains an indicator word. The model trained with AdvDat (where , ) predicts contradiction much less frequently than InferSent on examples with these words. This configuration was the strongest AdvDat model that still performed reasonably well on SNLI (Figure 1(b)). Here, AdvDat appears to remove some of the biases learned by the baseline, unmodified InferSent. We also provide two other configurations that do not show such an effect, illustrating that this behavior highly depends on the hyper-parameters.

5 Conclusion

We employed two adversarial learning techniques to a general NLI model by adding an external adversarial hypothesis-only classifier and perturbing training examples. Our experiments and analyses suggest that these techniques may help models exhibit fewer hypothesis-only biases. We hope this work will encourage the development and analysis of models that include components that ignore hypothesis-only biases, as well as similar biases discovered in other natural language understanding tasks Schwartz et al. (2017), including visual question answering, where recent work has considered similar adversarial techniques for removing language biases Ramakrishnan et al. (2018); Grand & Belinkov (2019).

6 Acknowledgements

This work was supported by JHU-HLTCOE, DARPA LORELEI, the Harvard Mind, Brain, and Behavior Initiative, and NSF 1845664. We thank the anonymous reviewers for their comments. Views and conclusions contained in this publication are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing official policies or endorsements of DARPA or the U.S. Government.


  • Alzantot et al. (2018) Moustafa Alzantot, Yash Sharma, Ahmed Elgohary, Bo-Jhang Ho, Mani Srivastava, and Kai-Wei Chang. Generating Natural Language Adversarial Examples. In

    Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

    , pp. 2890–2896, 2018.
  • Belinkov & Bisk (2018) Yonatan Belinkov and Yonatan Bisk.

    Synthetic and Natural Noise Both Break Neural Machine Translation.

    In International Conference on Learning Representations, 2018. URL https://openreview.net/forum?id=BJ8vJebC-.
  • Bowman et al. (2015) Samuel R. Bowman, Gabor Angeli, Christopher Potts, and Christopher D. Manning. A large annotated corpus for learning natural language inference. In Proceedings of the 2015 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP). Association for Computational Linguistics, 2015.
  • Chen & Cardie (2018) Xilun Chen and Claire Cardie. Multinomial adversarial networks for multi-domain text classification. In Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long Papers), pp. 1226–1240. Association for Computational Linguistics, 2018. URL http://aclweb.org/anthology/N18-1111.
  • Conneau et al. (2017) Alexis Conneau, Douwe Kiela, Holger Schwenk, Loïc Barrault, and Antoine Bordes. Supervised Learning of Universal Sentence Representations from Natural Language Inference Data. In Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, pp. 670–680. Association for Computational Linguistics, 2017. URL http://aclweb.org/anthology/D17-1070.
  • Conneau et al. (2018) Alexis Conneau, Germán Kruszewski, Guillaume Lample, Loïc Barrault, and Marco Baroni. What you can cram into a single $&!#* vector: Probing sentence embeddings for linguistic properties. In Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers), pp. 2126–2136. Association for Computational Linguistics, 2018. URL http://aclweb.org/anthology/P18-1198.
  • Elazar & Goldberg (2018) Yanai Elazar and Yoav Goldberg. Adversarial Removal of Demographic Attributes from Text Data. In Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, pp. 11–21. Association for Computational Linguistics, 2018. URL http://aclweb.org/anthology/D18-1002.
  • Ganin & Lempitsky (2015) Yaroslav Ganin and Victor Lempitsky.

    Unsupervised Domain Adaptation by Backpropagation.


    International Conference on Machine Learning

    , pp. 1180–1189, 2015.
  • Goodfellow et al. (2015) Ian J Goodfellow, Jonathon Shlens, and Christian Szegedy. Explaining and Harnessing Adversarial Examples. In International Conference on Learning Representations (ICLR), 2015.
  • Grand & Belinkov (2019) Gabriel Grand and Yonatan Belinkov. Adversarial Regularization for Visual Question Answering: Strengths, Shortcomings, and Side Effects. In Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Shortcomings in Vision and Language (SiVL) at NAACL-HLT, June 2019.
  • Gururangan et al. (2018) Suchin Gururangan, Swabha Swayamdipta, Omer Levy, Roy Schwartz, Samuel Bowman, and Noah A. Smith. Annotation Artifacts in Natural Language Inference Data. In Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 2 (Short Papers), pp. 107–112, New Orleans, Louisiana, June 2018. Association for Computational Linguistics. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/N18-2017.
  • Hochreiter & Schmidhuber (1997) Sepp Hochreiter and Jürgen Schmidhuber. Long short-term memory. Neural computation, 9(8):1735–1780, 1997.
  • Kang et al. (2018) Dongyeop Kang, Tushar Khot, Ashish Sabharwal, and Eduard Hovy. AdvEntuRe: Adversarial Training for Textual Entailment with Knowledge-Guided Examples. In Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers), pp. 2418–2428, Melbourne, Australia, July 2018. Association for Computational Linguistics. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/P18-1225.
  • Minervini & Riedel (2018) Pasquale Minervini and Sebastian Riedel. Adversarially Regularising Neural NLI Models to Integrate Logical Background Knowledge. In Proceedings of the 22nd Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL 2018). Association for Computational Linguistics, 2018.
  • Mou et al. (2016) Lili Mou, Rui Men, Ge Li, Yan Xu, Lu Zhang, Rui Yan, and Zhi Jin.

    Natural Language Inference by Tree-Based Convolution and Heuristic Matching.

    In Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers), pp. 130–136, Berlin, Germany, August 2016. Association for Computational Linguistics. URL http://anthology.aclweb.org/P16-2022.
  • Pennington et al. (2014) Jeffrey Pennington, Richard Socher, and Christopher Manning. Glove: Global vectors for word representation. In Proceedings of the 2014 conference on empirical methods in natural language processing (EMNLP), pp. 1532–1543, 2014.
  • Poliak et al. (2018) Adam Poliak, Jason Naradowsky, Aparajita Haldar, Rachel Rudinger, and Benjamin Van Durme. Hypothesis Only Baselines in Natural Language Inference. In Proceedings of the Seventh Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics, pp. 180–191, New Orleans, Louisiana, June 2018. Association for Computational Linguistics. URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/S18-2023.
  • Ramakrishnan et al. (2018) Sainandan Ramakrishnan, Aishwarya Agrawal, and Stefan Lee. Overcoming Language Priors in Visual Question Answering with Adversarial Regularization. In NIPS, pp. 1548–1558, 2018.
  • Schwartz et al. (2017) Roy Schwartz, Maarten Sap, Ioannis Konstas, Leila Zilles, Yejin Choi, and Noah A. Smith. Story Cloze Task: UW NLP System. In Proceedings of LSDSem, 2017.
  • Tsuchiya (2018) Masatoshi Tsuchiya. Performance Impact Caused by Hidden Bias of Training Data for Recognizing Textual Entailment. In 11th International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC2018), 2018.
  • Xie et al. (2017) Qizhe Xie, Zihang Dai, Yulun Du, Eduard Hovy, and Graham Neubig. Controllable invariance through adversarial feature learning. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, pp. 585–596, 2017.
  • Zhang et al. (2018) Brian Hu Zhang, Blake Lemoine, and Margaret Mitchell. Mitigating unwanted biases with adversarial learning. In Proceedings of the 2018 AAAI/ACM Conference on AI, Ethics, and Society, pp. 335–340. ACM, 2018.
  • Zhang & Bowman (2018) Kelly Zhang and Samuel Bowman. Language Modeling Teaches You More than Translation Does: Lessons Learned Through Auxiliary Task Analysis. In

    Proceedings of the 2018 EMNLP Workshop BlackboxNLP: Analyzing and Interpreting Neural Networks for NLP

    , pp. 359–361, Brussels, Belgium, November 2018. Association for Computational Linguistics.
    URL http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W18-5448.

Appendix A Stronger hyper-parameters for AdvCls

Figure 3 provides validation results using AdvCls with stronger hyper-parameters to complement the discussion in §4.2. While it is difficult to notice trends, all configurations perform similarly and slightly below the baseline. These models seem to be less stable compared to using smaller hyper-parameters, as discussed in §4.2.

Figure 3: Validation results using AdvCls with stronger hyper-parameters.