XRayGAN: Consistency-preserving Generation of X-ray Images from Radiology Reports

by   Xingyi Yang, et al.

To effectively train medical students to become qualified radiologists, a large number of X-ray images collected from patients with diverse medical conditions are needed. However, due to data privacy concerns, such images are typically difficult to obtain. To address this problem, we develop methods to generate view-consistent, high-fidelity, and high-resolution X-ray images from radiology reports to facilitate radiology training of medical students. This task is presented with several challenges. First, from a single report, images with different views (e.g., frontal, lateral) need to be generated. How to ensure consistency of these images (i.e., make sure they are about the same patient)? Second, X-ray images are required to have high resolution. Otherwise, many details of diseases would be lost. How to generate high-resolutions images? Third, radiology reports are long and have complicated structure. How to effectively understand their semantics to generate high-fidelity images that accurately reflect the contents of the reports? To address these three challenges, we propose an XRayGAN composed of three modules: (1) a view consistency network that maximizes the consistency between generated frontal-view and lateral-view images; (2) a multi-scale conditional GAN that progressively generates a cascade of images with increasing resolution; (3) a hierarchical attentional encoder that learns the latent semantics of a radiology report by capturing its hierarchical linguistic structure and various levels of clinical importance of words and sentences. Experiments on two radiology datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our methods. To our best knowledge, this work represents the first one generating consistent and high-resolution X-ray images from radiology reports. The code is available at https://github.com/UCSD-AI4H/XRayGAN.


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