Where is the Bottleneck of Adversarial Learning with Unlabeled Data?
Deep neural networks (DNNs) are incredibly brittle due to adversarial examples. To robustify DNNs, adversarial training was proposed, which requires large-scale but well-labeled data. However, it is quite expensive to annotate large-scale data well. To compensate for this shortage, several seminal works are utilizing large-scale unlabeled data. In this paper, we observe that seminal works do not perform well, since the quality of pseudo labels on unlabeled data is quite poor, especially when the amount of unlabeled data is significantly larger than that of labeled data. We believe that the quality of pseudo labels is the bottleneck of adversarial learning with unlabeled data. To tackle this bottleneck, we leverage deep co-training, which trains two deep networks and encourages two networks diverged by exploiting peer's adversarial examples. Based on deep co-training, we propose robust co-training (RCT) for adversarial learning with unlabeled data. We conduct comprehensive experiments on CIFAR-10 and SVHN datasets. Empirical results demonstrate that our RCT can significantly outperform baselines (e.g., robust self-training (RST)) in both standard test accuracy and robust test accuracy w.r.t. different datasets, different network structures, and different types of adversarial training.READ FULL TEXT