When Maximum Stable Set can be solved in FPT time

09/18/2019 ∙ by Édouard Bonnet, et al. ∙ 0

Maximum Independent Set (MIS for short) is in general graphs the paradigmatic W[1]-hard problem. In stark contrast, polynomial-time algorithms are known when the inputs are restricted to structured graph classes such as, for instance, perfect graphs (which includes bipartite graphs, chordal graphs, co-graphs, etc.) or claw-free graphs. In this paper, we introduce some variants of co-graphs with parameterized noise, that is, graphs that can be made into disjoint unions or complete sums by the removal of a certain number of vertices and the addition/deletion of a certain number of edges per incident vertex, both controlled by the parameter. We give a series of FPT Turing-reductions on these classes and use them to make some progress on the parameterized complexity of MIS in H-free graphs. We show that for every fixed t ≥ 1, MIS is FPT in P(1,t,t,t)-free graphs, where P(1,t,t,t) is the graph obtained by substituting all the vertices of a four-vertex path but one end of the path by cliques of size t. We also provide randomized FPT algorithms in dart-free graphs and in cricket-free graphs. This settles the FPT/W[1]-hard dichotomy for five-vertex graphs H.

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