Voxel-wise classification for porosity investigation of additive manufactured parts with 3D unsupervised and (deeply) supervised neural networks

by   Domenico Iuso, et al.

Additive Manufacturing (AM) has emerged as a manufacturing process that allows the direct production of samples from digital models. To ensure that quality standards are met in all manufactured samples of a batch, X-ray computed tomography (X-CT) is often used combined with automated anomaly detection. For the latter, deep learning (DL) anomaly detection techniques are increasingly, as they can be trained to be robust to the material being analysed and resilient towards poor image quality. Unfortunately, most recent and popular DL models have been developed for 2D image processing, thereby disregarding valuable volumetric information. This study revisits recent supervised (UNet, UNet++, UNet 3+, MSS-UNet) and unsupervised (VAE, ceVAE, gmVAE, vqVAE) DL models for porosity analysis of AM samples from X-CT images and extends them to accept 3D input data with a 3D-patch pipeline for lower computational requirements, improved efficiency and generalisability. The supervised models were trained using the Focal Tversky loss to address class imbalance that arises from the low porosity in the training datasets. The output of the unsupervised models is post-processed to reduce misclassifications caused by their inability to adequately represent the object surface. The findings were cross-validated in a 5-fold fashion and include: a performance benchmark of the DL models, an evaluation of the post-processing algorithm, an evaluation of the effect of training supervised models with the output of unsupervised models. In a final performance benchmark on a test set with poor image quality, the best performing supervised model was UNet++ with an average precision of 0.751 ± 0.030, while the best unsupervised model was the post-processed ceVAE with 0.830 ± 0.003. The VAE/ceVAE models demonstrated superior capabilities, particularly when leveraging post-processing techniques.


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