Voice Spoofing Countermeasures: Taxonomy, State-of-the-art, experimental analysis of generalizability, open challenges, and the way forward

by   Awais Khan, et al.

Malicious actors may seek to use different voice-spoofing attacks to fool ASV systems and even use them for spreading misinformation. Various countermeasures have been proposed to detect these spoofing attacks. Due to the extensive work done on spoofing detection in automated speaker verification (ASV) systems in the last 6-7 years, there is a need to classify the research and perform qualitative and quantitative comparisons on state-of-the-art countermeasures. Additionally, no existing survey paper has reviewed integrated solutions to voice spoofing evaluation and speaker verification, adversarial/antiforensics attacks on spoofing countermeasures, and ASV itself, or unified solutions to detect multiple attacks using a single model. Further, no work has been done to provide an apples-to-apples comparison of published countermeasures in order to assess their generalizability by evaluating them across corpora. In this work, we conduct a review of the literature on spoofing detection using hand-crafted features, deep learning, end-to-end, and universal spoofing countermeasure solutions to detect speech synthesis (SS), voice conversion (VC), and replay attacks. Additionally, we also review integrated solutions to voice spoofing evaluation and speaker verification, adversarial and anti-forensics attacks on voice countermeasures, and ASV. The limitations and challenges of the existing spoofing countermeasures are also presented. We report the performance of these countermeasures on several datasets and evaluate them across corpora. For the experiments, we employ the ASVspoof2019 and VSDC datasets along with GMM, SVM, CNN, and CNN-GRU classifiers. (For reproduceability of the results, the code of the test bed can be found in our GitHub Repository.


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