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Variational Quantum Circuit Model for Knowledge Graphs Embedding

by   Yunpu Ma, et al.

In this work, we propose the first quantum Ansätze for the statistical relational learning on knowledge graphs using parametric quantum circuits. We introduce two types of variational quantum circuits for knowledge graph embedding. Inspired by the classical representation learning, we first consider latent features for entities as coefficients of quantum states, while predicates are characterized by parametric gates acting on the quantum states. For the first model, the quantum advantages disappear when it comes to the optimization of this model. Therefore, we introduce a second quantum circuit model where embeddings of entities are generated from parameterized quantum gates acting on the pure quantum state. The benefit of the second method is that the quantum embeddings can be trained efficiently meanwhile preserving the quantum advantages. We show the proposed methods can achieve comparable results to the state-of-the-art classical models, e.g., RESCAL, DistMult. Furthermore, after optimizing the models, the complexity of inductive inference on the knowledge graphs might be reduced with respect to the number of entities.


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