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Two Timescale Hybrid Federated Learning with Cooperative D2D Local Model Aggregations

by   Frank Po-Chen Lin, et al.

Federated learning has emerged as a popular technique for distributing machine learning (ML) model training across the wireless edge. In this paper, we propose two timescale hybrid federated learning (TT-HF), which is a hybrid between the device-to-server communication paradigm in federated learning and device-to-device (D2D) communications for model training. In TT-HF, during each global aggregation interval, devices (i) perform multiple stochastic gradient descent iterations on their individual datasets, and (ii) aperiodically engage in consensus formation of their model parameters through cooperative, distributed D2D communications within local clusters. With a new general definition of gradient diversity, we formally study the convergence behavior of TT-HF, resulting in new convergence bounds for distributed ML. We leverage our convergence bounds to develop an adaptive control algorithm that tunes the step size, D2D communication rounds, and global aggregation period of TT-HF over time to target a sublinear convergence rate of O(1/t) while minimizing network resource utilization. Our subsequent experiments demonstrate that TT-HF significantly outperforms the current art in federated learning in terms of model accuracy and/or network energy consumption in different scenarios where local device datasets exhibit statistical heterogeneity.


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