Tree Structure-Aware Graph Representation Learning via Integrated Hierarchical Aggregation and Relational Metric Learning

08/23/2020 ∙ by Ziyue Qiao, et al. ∙ 0

While Graph Neural Network (GNN) has shown superiority in learning node representations of homogeneous graphs, leveraging GNN on heterogeneous graphs remains a challenging problem. The dominating reason is that GNN learns node representations by aggregating neighbors' information regardless of node types. Some work is proposed to alleviate such issue by exploiting relations or meta-path to sample neighbors with distinct categories, then use attention mechanism to learn different importance for different categories. However, one limitation is that the learned representations for different types of nodes should own different feature spaces, while all the above work still project node representations into one feature space. Moreover, after exploring massive heterogeneous graphs, we identify a fact that multiple nodes with the same type always connect to a node with another type, which reveals the many-to-one schema, a.k.a. the hierarchical tree structure. But all the above work cannot preserve such tree structure, since the exact multi-hop path correlation from neighbors to the target node would be erased through aggregation. Therefore, to overcome the limitations of the literature, we propose T-GNN, a tree structure-aware graph neural network model for graph representation learning. Specifically, the proposed T-GNN consists of two modules: (1) the integrated hierarchical aggregation module and (2) the relational metric learning module. The integrated hierarchical aggregation module aims to preserve the tree structure by combining GNN with Gated Recurrent Unit to integrate the hierarchical and sequential neighborhood information on the tree structure to node representations. The relational metric learning module aims to preserve the heterogeneity by embedding each type of nodes into a type-specific space with distinct distribution based on similarity metrics.

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