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Topological Stability: a New Algorithm for Selecting The Nearest Neighbors in Non-Linear Dimensionality Reduction Techniques

by   Mohammed Elhenawy, et al.

In the machine learning field, dimensionality reduction is an important task. It mitigates the undesired properties of high-dimensional spaces to facilitate classification, compression, and visualization of high-dimensional data. During the last decade, researchers proposed many new (non-linear) techniques for dimensionality reduction. Most of these techniques are based on the intuition that data lies on or near a complex low-dimensional manifold that is embedded in the high-dimensional space. New techniques for dimensionality reduction aim at identifying and extracting the manifold from the high-dimensional space. Isomap is one of widely-used low-dimensional embedding methods, where geodesic distances on a weighted graph are incorporated with the classical scaling (metric multidimensional scaling). The Isomap chooses the nearest neighbours based on the distance only which causes bridges and topological instability. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm to choose the nearest neighbours to reduce the number of short-circuit errors and hence improves the topological stability. Because at any point on the manifold, that point and its nearest neighbours form a vector subspace and the orthogonal to that subspace is orthogonal to all vectors spans the vector subspace. The prposed algorithmuses the point itself and its two nearest neighbours to find the bases of the subspace and the orthogonal to that subspace which belongs to the orthogonal complementary subspace. The proposed algorithm then adds new points to the two nearest neighbours based on the distance and the angle between each new point and the orthogonal to the subspace. The superior performance of the new algorithm in choosing the nearest neighbours is confirmed through experimental work with several datasets.


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