    # Tight Last-Iterate Convergence of the Extragradient and the Optimistic Gradient Descent-Ascent Algorithm for Constrained Monotone Variational Inequalities

The monotone variational inequality is a central problem in mathematical programming that unifies and generalizes many important settings such as smooth convex optimization, two-player zero-sum games, convex-concave saddle point problems, etc. The extragradient algorithm by Korpelevich  and the optimistic gradient descent-ascent algorithm by Popov  are arguably the two most classical and popular methods for solving monotone variational inequalities. Despite their long histories, the following major problem remains open. What is the last-iterate convergence rate of the extragradient algorithm or the optimistic gradient descent-ascent algorithm for monotone and Lipschitz variational inequalities with constraints? We resolve this open problem by showing that both the extragradient algorithm and the optimistic gradient descent-ascent algorithm have a tight O(1/√(T)) last-iterate convergence rate for arbitrary convex feasible sets, which matches the lower bound by Golowich et al. [2020a,b]. Our rate is measured in terms of the standard gap function. At the core of our results lies a non-standard performance measure – the tangent residual, which can be viewed as an adaptation of the norm of the operator that takes the local constraints into account. We use the tangent residual (or a slight variation of the tangent residual) as the the potential function in our analysis of the extragradient algorithm (or the optimistic gradient descent-ascent algorithm) and prove that it is non-increasing between two consecutive iterates.

## Authors

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