The test-negative design with additional population controls: a practical approach to rapidly obtain information on the causes of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic

04/13/2020
by   Jan P Vandenbroucke, et al.
0

Testing of symptomatic persons for infection with SARS-CoV-2 is increasingly used in different countries. To collect information to understand the causes of the COVID-19 pandemic, we propose two types of case-control studies that can be carried out jointly in test-settings for symptomatic persons. The first, the test-negative case-control design (TND) is the easiest to implement; it only demands collecting information about potential risk factors for COVID-19 from the tested symptomatic persons. The second, standard case-control studies (CC) with population controls, requires the collection of data on one or more population controls for each person who is tested in the test facilities, so that test-positives and test-negatives can each be compared with population controls. We first summarize the TND and explain how to add it to large-scale testing of symptomatic persons. The TND will detect differences in risk factors between symptomatic persons who have COVID-19 (test-positives) and those who have other respiratory infections (test-negatives). However, risk factors with effect sizes of equal magnitude for both COVID-19 and other respiratory infections will not be identified by the TND. Second, we discuss how to add population controls to compare with the test-positives and the test-negatives separately, yielding two additional case-control studies. We describe two different types of population control groups: one composed of accompanying persons to the test facilities, the other drawn from existing country-wide health care databases. We also describe other types of population controls that may be most suitable in other situations. Combining the test-negative design with population controls yields a triangulation approach that distinguishes between exposures that are risk factors for both COVID-19 and other respiratory infections, and exposures that are risk factors for just COVID-19.

READ FULL TEXT
POST COMMENT

Comments

There are no comments yet.

Authors

05/14/2020

Inference for a test-negative case-control study with added controls

Test-negative designs with added controls have recently been proposed to...
06/07/2021

The evolving usefulness of the Test-Negative Design in studying risk factors for COVID-19 due to changes in testing policy

This paper is a short extension of our previous paper [arXiv:2004.06033]...
12/29/2018

On the Construction of Knockoffs in Case-Control Studies

Consider a case-control study in which we have a random sample, construc...
12/19/2020

Translation-invariant functional clustering on COVID-19 deaths adjusted on population risk factors

The COVID-19 pandemic has taken the world by storm with its high infecti...
03/31/2021

MOAI: A methodology for evaluating the impact of indoor airflow in the transmission of COVID-19

Epidemiology models play a key role in understanding and responding to t...
This week in AI

Get the week's most popular data science and artificial intelligence research sent straight to your inbox every Saturday.