Context captures statistical and common sense properties of the real-world and plays a critical role in perceptual inference [Mottaghi et al.(2014)Mottaghi, Chen, Liu, Cho, Lee, Fidler, Urtasun, and Yuille]. There are numerous studies that demonstrate the advantages of context in object recognition [Divvala et al.(2009)Divvala, Hoiem, Hays, Efros, and Hebert, Mottaghi et al.(2014)Mottaghi, Chen, Liu, Cho, Lee, Fidler, Urtasun, and Yuille, Murphy et al.(2004)Murphy, Torralba, and Freeman, Galleguillos et al.(2008)Galleguillos, Rabinovich, and Belongie, Chen et al.(2016)Chen, He, and Davis]. In contrast, other investigations have revealed situations in which context does not improve the performance of object detection [Lin et al.(2013)Lin, Fidler, and Urtasun, Yao et al.(2012)Yao, Fidler, and Urtasun], and sometimes introducing context even decreases performance [Yao et al.(2012)Yao, Fidler, and Urtasun]. Additionally, driven by the development of deep CNNs [Krizhevsky et al.(2012)Krizhevsky, Sutskever, and Hinton, Simonyan and Zisserman(2014)], the performance of object detection has been dramatically boosted [Girshick et al.(2013)Girshick, Donahue, Darrell, and Malik, Girshick(2015), Ren et al.(2015)Ren, He, Girshick, and Sun, Gupta et al.(2015)Gupta, Hoffman, and Malik]
. While context has been incorporated into deep learning frameworks, the performance gain from context itself has not been significant[Chu and Cai(2016), Li et al.(2016)Li, Wei, Liang, Dong, Xu, Feng, and Yan]. This leads to the question: how important is context in object detection when we have reasonably good detectors?
To address this question, we study possible reasons why context might not improve detection. First, imperfect extraction of context information introduces errors into contextual inference. For instance, when visual context information is extracted through imperfect appearance-based detectors, as shown in Figure 1(a), incorrectly-detected regions can introduce noise into contextual inference, limiting the gain from context provided by correctly detected regions. Second, contextual information that is hard to extract or has low predictive power can introduce errors into context that is easy to detect and is very predictive. For example, when predicting the presence of a pillow in an image using context provided by other objects of different categories, some object categories, such as beds and sofas, which are easier to detect and have strong relationships with respect to pillow, are informative as context. Others, such as boxes and pictures, which are either hard to detect or irrelevant to pillows, are likely to be useless or even misleading.
To further investigate these challenges, we conduct a simulation to study the role of context in isolation, without appearance-based clues. Since reliable contextual relationships between object pairs can be most reliably learned in sufficiently structured scenes, we utilize the SUN RGB-D [Song et al.(2015)Song, Lichtenberg, and Xiao] dataset, which is one of the largest indoor-scene datasets and contains a large number of annotated objects. For a given image with ground truth bounding boxes for all objects, we predict the label for each object, one at a time. The object whose label is to be predicted is referred to as the target object and the other objects are referred to as contextual objects. For the unknown target object, we remove the uncertainty of all remaining objects by assigning them to their ground-truth labels and use object-to-object contextual relationships to predict the label of the target object without access to its appearance. We observe very good prediction accuracy, which implies that, without detection noise, simple contextual relationships between objects can boost detection performance. We then study how predictive each object class is of a given target object class by ignoring one contextual object class at a time. The results suggest that different object classes vary in their ability to predict the presence of certain target object categories.
Motivated by these experiments, we propose a region-based context re-scoring method with dynamic context selection, illustrated in figure 1(b), which seeks to eliminate false positive contextual regions while emphasizing likely true positive and informative ones. Specifically, we introduce a latent variable for each contextual region that determines if that region will be selected to provide context information. In practice, it is intractable to select the optimal set of contextual regions that provide the most trustworthy information when contradictory evidence exists, both for and against the target object having a certain class label. Instead, we decompose the problem by selecting informative regions that provide the strongest supporting and refuting evidence independently to compute a For upper-bound and an Against upper-bound of the confidence score, and then re-score the confidence for that object being in that class based on the difference between the two upper-bounds. The model for computing the two upper-bounds is trained by latent-SVM [Felzenszwalb et al.(2010)Felzenszwalb, Girshick, McAllester, and Ramanan]. The proposed method is evaluated on the SUN RGB-D dataset and achieves mean average precision (mAP), an improvement of over using object detections without context (). We also conduct experiments to study the performance of the selection model. Both the simulations on pure context and the real-world experiments using the proposed selection method demonstrate the importance of object-to-object context and the gain attributed to the context selection scheme.
2 Related Work
Many techniques have used context to improve performance for image understanding tasks. For instance, Torralba [Torralba(2003)] proposed a framework for modeling the relationship between context and object properties, based on correlations between the statistics of low-level features across the entire scene and the objects that it contains. Divvala et al. [Divvala et al.(2009)Divvala, Hoiem, Hays, Efros, and Hebert] defined several context sources and proposed a context re-scoring method that uses a regression model on multiple contextual features. Felzenszwalb et al. [Felzenszwalb et al.(2010)Felzenszwalb, Girshick, McAllester, and Ramanan] proposed a simple context re-scoring model running on appearance-based detections. Graphical models have been widely applied to image segmentation and recognition tasks by jointly modeling appearance, geometry and contextual relations [Shotton et al.(2006)Shotton, Winn, Rother, and Criminisi, Yao et al.(2012)Yao, Fidler, and Urtasun, Gould et al.(2009)Gould, Fulton, and Koller, Choi et al.(2010)Choi, Lim, Torralba, and Willsky]. In [Lin et al.(2013)Lin, Fidler, and Urtasun], context clues were extended from 2D to 3D object detection.
Recent advances in deep neural networks and R-CNN based detectors in both 2D and 3D have resulted in reliable appearance-based detectors[Girshick et al.(2013)Girshick, Donahue, Darrell, and Malik, Girshick(2015), Ren et al.(2015)Ren, He, Girshick, and Sun, Gupta et al.(2015)Gupta, Hoffman, and Malik]. Context models have also been applied to deep learning features or detection results. Wenqing et al. [Chu and Cai(2016)] evaluated the performance of a joint CRF model on Faster R-CNN detections. Zhang et al. [Zhang et al.(2016)Zhang, Bai, Kohli, Izadi, and Xiao]
adapted the topology of neural networks to embed 3D context and performed holistic scene understanding based on scene context. Bellet al. [Bell et al.(2015)Bell, Zitnick, Bala, and Girshick]
explored the use of spatial Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) to gather context information as well as to capture fine-grained details from multiple lower-level convolutional layers.
In contrast to the above approaches, our method introduces the concept of context selection to identify a subset of contextual objects which are highly likely to be true positives and informative. Our context selection method can be viewed as a "hard" attention based visual attention model that only pays attention to the selected contextual objects[Xu et al.(2015)Xu, Ba, Kiros, Cho, Courville, Salakhutdinov, Zemel, and Bengio].
3 The Role of Pure Context
We first conduct an experiment to analyze the utility of pure contextual relationships between objects in object detection. In this experiment, we only consider the ground-truth bounding boxes, and the label for a given box is predicted using only context information between the target box and the remaining boxes for other objects in an image. When predicting the label of the target object, we only consider its bounding box and intentionally ignore appearance information such as color, shape and texture. Moreover, the ground-truth labels and bounding boxes of all contextual objects are revealed to remove the influence of uncertainty in context. We consider three types of object-to-object context: co-occurrence, relative scale and spatial relationships.
3.1 Predicting Object Class using Pure Contextual Relationships
Prediction is performed by a linear classifier. Given an image, assume there are ground-truth objects, drawn from object categories. When predicting the label of a target object , the ground-truth bounding boxes of and the remaining objects are given, along with the the labels for all objects other than . The confidence that object is in class is:
where indicates that the target object is assigned label , and indicates that the contextual object is in class , is a binary indicator variable with , and is a bias term. The terms , and measure co-occurrence, relative scale and spatial relationship defined in equation (2):
where , ,
are weight vectors for each set of contextual features respectively. The termis the likelihood that a target object of category and object of category co-occur in the same image. The term is the likelihood that a target object of category and object of category have relative scale ratio . The terms and are the likelihoods that a target object of category and object of category have relative spatial distance (distance along one axis normalized by the height/width of the image) along X-axis, and along Y-axis, respectively. The likelihoods are learned from the statistics of the training set. For the co-occurrence context information, we use a two-bin histogram to represent the likelihood for the co-occurrence of a target-context object pair. For the relative scale and the spatial context, we categorize the relative scale ratios and relative distances into n slots and use an n-bin histogram to represent the likelihoods. Examples of the histograms can be found in the supplementary material. Laplace smoothing is applied to avoid zero counts.
Given this linear model and the features extracted based on the likelihoods, we train a multi-class classifier using structural SVM[Tsochantaridis et al.(2004)Tsochantaridis, Hofmann, Joachims, and Altun]. To evaluate the performance of object detection using pure context, we compute prediction accuracies on the 19 common objects used in the SUN RGB-D dataset; the same object categories are used as contextual objects. The average accuracy is , which is quite high considering that no appearance information is utilized. The accuracy for each object class can be found in the supplementary material.
3.2 The Role of Different Contextual Object Categories
The above experiment shows the predictive potential of pure context. Do all object categories provide equally informative context when predicting the label of a target object, or are some of them more informative than others? To answer this question, we evaluate the predictive power of each object category with respect to a given target object category. For each target object category , we measure the relative accuracy loss (RAL), defined as , when removing the object category from the set C of contextual object categories. Some RAL examples are shown in Table 2 and 2. For each target object category, we show the object categories that lead to the top five largest RALs. We observed that different object categories have significantly different predictive power depending on certain object categories.
In summary, pure contextual information between object pairs has high predictive power, but each contextual-object category, not surprisingly, predicts some target categories much better than others.
4 Region-based Context Re-scoring with Dynamic Context Selection
Based upon the above analysis, we propose a model to improve detection based on context, where contextual objects are detected automatically and are thus noisy probabilistic detections. We utilize the appearance clues from state-of-the-art detectors for predicting a target object’s label. The same contextual relationships discussed in the previous analysis between a detected target bounding box and the remaining ones are utilized, but each box is a region with an
associated probability distribution over the possible labels including the background. We introduce binary latent variables for all contextual regions, indicating whether a contextual region is selected in the context re-scoring process.
4.1 Test-Time Re-scoring using For-and-Against Upper Bounds
We propose a region-based context re-scoring model with context selection. The re-scored confidence for the target object being in category is:
where and represent the appearance-based confidence scores of the target and the contextual objects, and are the corresponding weights, and is the binary indicator variable for context selection. The proposed method can be viewed as a tree model where the target object (the root) collects context information from the selected contextual objects (the leaves). In contrast to traditional graphical models, the proposed method is an approximation that decomposes the re-scoring process into two independent ones due to the intractability of jointly solving the context selection with contradictory context information.
Our model, intuitively, corresponds to a courtroom where the prosecutors tries to prove that the target object does not come from a given class by providing the most compelling negative evidence (a small set of confidently detected context objects whose presence is inconsistent with that label for the target object), while the defendant’s lawyer provides the most compelling evidence for the truth of the claim that the target object is from the given class. Our goal is to learn, from training data, how these "arguments" should be constructed for a given target class. That is, we seek to learn a computational model for a multi-valued logic [Ginsberg(1988)] in an attempt to avoid noise in detection and ambivalence in contextual prediction (from the large number of incorrect and irrelevant potential objects in an image) from overwhelming the clear and compelling evidence concerning the identity of the target object. This type of multi-valued logic has been used before for human detection (where reasoning considered occlusion and image border effects [Shet et al.(2007)Shet, Neumann, Ramesh, and Davis]), but actually learning how to choose these evidential arguments from training data has not been done before. So, our solution involves identifying the different sources that provide supporting and refuting evidence independently, and then to combine the degree of belief for and the degree of belief against to obtain the final confidence of a target object being in class . Specifically, we first re-score each target object by selecting the evidence that most strongly supports it being in a certain class to compute its For-Score, and select the evidence that most strongly argues against it for its Against-Score. Both the For-Score and the Against-Score can be computed by maximizing function (3) over all possible indicator vectors that consist of indicator variables for all contextual regions, but with different weight vectors. The weight vector for computing the For-Score is learned with positive samples that are in class , while the weight vector for the Against-Score considers the objects that are not in class as the positive samples. The For-Score can be viewed as a belief upper bound for a target object being in class . In both cases we select contextual regions with high appearance-based confidence scores by forcing the weight to be positive. The final degree of belief for the target object being in class is the margin between the For-and-Against upper bounds: .
4.2 Training with Latent-SVM
The proposed re-scoring model with dynamic context selection can be trained using latent-SVM [Felzenszwalb et al.(2010)Felzenszwalb, Girshick, McAllester, and Ramanan]. The processes for learning the weights for computing the For-Score and the Against-Score are the same except for the choice of positive samples. We describe the general training process. The weight vector and feature vector for an sample x are shown in equation 4 and 5.
where is the vector consists of indicator variables.
The re-scored confidence for a sample x is determined by a classifier using a function of form:
where consists of all possible latent vectors for sample x. The objective function to be minimized is:
where we adopt the hinge loss to minimize the loss in a max-margin manner. The constant is used to weight the regularization term.
Although a latent-SVM leads to a non-convex optimization, we can efficiently solve it using coordinate descent by leveraging its semi-convexity property. The coordinate descent method involves two steps. Firstly, positive samples are relabeled by selecting contextual-regions that scores the target object highest by solving a linear programming problem:
and then, the weight vector is optimized by solving a convex optimization problem by minimizing the loss in equation (7) given the relabeled positive samples.
We use the SUN RGB-D dataset, which contains images from [Nathan Silberman and Fergus(2012), Janoch et al.(2011)Janoch, Karayev, Jia, Barron, Fritz, Saenko, and Darrell, Xiao et al.(2013)Xiao, Owens, and Torralba], to evaluate our proposed method. We consider the 19 most common classes in the dataset. The performance is evaluated through the average precision (AP) of object detection. For comparison, we evaluated several R-CNN based detectors, and chose as the baseline one that utilizes the depth modality by supervision transfer (ST) [Gupta et al.(2015)Gupta, Hoffman, and Malik], which uses object proposals from [Gupta et al.(2014)Gupta, Girshick, Arbelaez, and Malik] and yields state-of-the-art mAP on the SUN RGB-D dataset for 2D object detection.
5.2 Context Selection Model and Baseline Models
Besides ST, we also compare our context selection model (CS) with the baselines including the one that "selects all" (SA) contextual regions and the one that only considers either the For upper-bound (FUB) or the Against upper-bound (AUB). For each object category T, we train the model based upon appearance-based detections using latent-SVM. When predicting a target object’s label, we set a precision threshold (and choose corresponding appearance-based confidence score thresholds of all contextual objects), and only consider detections with scores higher than the thresholds as potential contextual objects to ensure the context precision for the potential contextual objects of each class reaches the precision threshold. To train the FUB model, we label boxes that have ground-truth labels in class as positive samples and select from supporting evidence to obtain the For upper-bound. The training process for the AUB model is obtained by simply reversing the positive and negative training labels. During the test, for each target object , the context selection model selects supporting refuting evidence separately to compute the FUB and the AUB, and then uses the margin between them as the final confidence score for object being in class .
Does context selection work? We compare the context selection model with the select-all model by measuring average precision. Table 3 shows the average precision of the 19 object classes when the precision threshold for contextual regions is set as 0.4. The Precision-Recall (PR) curves can be found in the supplementary material. We achieve only a 0.43% mAP gain by the SA model, with some classes improving notably (counter, desk, lamp and pillow), while others (bathtub, chair, monitor, dresser, sofa, sink and toilet) degrading when considering all contextual regions. When we apply context selection, we see large improvement in AP on almost all classes compared to both the ST and SA baselines. We observe mAP gain by the context selection method.
|bathtub||bed||book-shelf||box||chair||counter||desk||door||dresser||garbage bin||lamp||monitor||night stand||pillow||sink||sofa||table||tv||toilet||mAP|
|ST [Gupta et al.(2015)Gupta, Hoffman, and Malik]||67.70||76.44||43.45||18.02||42.15||32.06||24.94||22.93||40.27||52.83||49.73||47.80||56.30||48.75||19.92||50.82||42.83||45.66||81.35||45.47|
How does context selection compare to simple threshold-based filtering? One may wonder whether the selection method can be modeled by a simple threshold-based selection on contextual regions based on their appearance-based confidence scores. We conducted an experiment to compare the performance of the proposed context selection method with that of the select-all method augmented with the choice of different precision thresholds for contextual regions. The results are shown in Figure 2. We observe that with the increase of precision threshold for contextual regions, the select-all method does perform better due to reduced noise from contextual regions. The context selection method also consistently improves as the precision threshold raises is raised from 0.1 to 0.5. Performance drops when the precision threshold exceeds 0.5. At this point, too few relevant regions survive the precision threshold. Generally, the context selection method outperforms the select-all method with precision-threshold-based filtering.
Does the margin between For-and-Against upper-bounds help? Performance of context selection methods that use only one of the For upper-bound, the Against upper-bound and the margin between them are shown in Table 3. By ignoring the against evidence in the FUB method, the confidence scores of true positives increase as expected, but the false positives are also boosted higher. As we subtract the AUB from the FUB, we introduce refuting evidence to balance the boosting effect, and reduce false positives. We observe a performance gain of about by combining the two upper-bounds together.
Does the selection model do more than select true positive contextual regions? Section 3.2 illustrated the differential predictive power of contextual objects for a certain target object. Ideally the context selection method should select contextual objects that exist in the image and also have strong predictive power. To test that this is indeed occurring, we compare to the setting where an oracle labels the true positive contextual objects for the model to choose from. We show the APs for the SA and the CS methods with oracle in both training and testing phases in Table 4 and label them as SA-O and CS-O, respectively. For each target object class and a given contextual object class , we show the ratio between the counts of selected true positive contextual objects in class and the total number of contextual objects in that class as the selecting ratio. The top five contextual objects that have the highest selecting ratios of two target object classes are shown in Table 6 and 6. We notice that the selecting ratios vary for different contextual object categories, and by selecting a subset of informative contextual objects, the CS-O method outperforms the SA-O method. The performance of CS-O is the upper-bound of the context selection model, and the proposed selection model is a good approximation to the upper-bound.
Visualization of Selected contextual regions To visualize the performance of the context selection method, we show the selected contextual regions for four target object classes in Figure 3. The selection model tends to gather context information from the true positive contextual regions that can provide strong supporting or refuting evidence to predict the label of the target object. More visualizations can be found in the supplementary material.
|bathtub||bed||book-shelf||box||chair||counter||desk||door||dresser||garbage bin||lamp||monitor||night stand||pillow||sink||sofa||table||tv||toilet||mAP|
We analyzed the predictive potential of context in an idealized case where the labels of all contextual objects are known, and only these labels and their relationships to the target objects are used to predict the target object label. Through these experiments we found that, despite ignoring the appearance of the target object, pure context is effective at predicting the target object. We also discovered that different categories vary in their ability to predict a certain target object class. Based on these experiments, we proposed a region-based context re-scoring method with dynamic context selection to automatically improve the pool of contextual objects. Our method achieved significant performance gains when compared with the appearance-based detector and the contextual model that simply selects everything. An interesting direction of the future work is to use depth information as a contextual cue, and apply context selection in an end-to-end deep learning framework.
This research was partially supported by grant N000141612713 from the Office of Naval Research.
- [Bell et al.(2015)Bell, Zitnick, Bala, and Girshick] Sean Bell, C. Lawrence Zitnick, Kavita Bala, and Ross B. Girshick. Inside-outside net: Detecting objects in context with skip pooling and recurrent neural networks. CoRR, abs/1512.04143, 2015.
[Chen et al.(2016)Chen, He, and Davis]
Xi Chen, He He, and Larry S Davis.
Object detection in 20 questions.
Applications of Computer Vision (WACV), 2016 IEEE Winter Conference on. IEEE, 2016.
- [Choi et al.(2010)Choi, Lim, Torralba, and Willsky] Myung Jin Choi, Joseph J. Lim, Antonio Torralba, and Alan S. Willsky. Exploiting hierarchical context on a large database of object categories. In CVPR, pages 129–136. IEEE Computer Society, 2010.
- [Chu and Cai(2016)] Wenqing Chu and Deng Cai. Deep feature based contextual model for object detectionn. CoRR, abs/1604.04048, 2016.
- [Divvala et al.(2009)Divvala, Hoiem, Hays, Efros, and Hebert] Santosh Kumar Divvala, Derek Hoiem, James Hays, Alexei A. Efros, and Martial Hebert. An empirical study of context in object detection. In CVPR, pages 1271–1278. IEEE Computer Society, 2009.
- [Felzenszwalb et al.(2010)Felzenszwalb, Girshick, McAllester, and Ramanan] Pedro F. Felzenszwalb, Ross B. Girshick, David McAllester, and Deva Ramanan. Object detection with discriminatively trained part-based models. IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., 32(9):1627–1645, September 2010.
[Galleguillos et al.(2008)Galleguillos, Rabinovich, and
Carolina Galleguillos, Andrew Rabinovich, and Serge Belongie.
Object categorization using co-occurrence, location and appearance.
IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, June 2008.
Multivalued logics: A uniform approach to inference in artificial intelligence.Computational Intelligence, 4:265–316, 1988.
- [Girshick(2015)] Ross B. Girshick. Fast R-CNN. CoRR, abs/1504.08083, 2015.
- [Girshick et al.(2013)Girshick, Donahue, Darrell, and Malik] Ross B. Girshick, Jeff Donahue, Trevor Darrell, and Jitendra Malik. Rich feature hierarchies for accurate object detection and semantic segmentation. CoRR, abs/1311.2524, 2013.
- [Gould et al.(2009)Gould, Fulton, and Koller] S. Gould, R. Fulton, and D. Koller. Decomposing a scene into geometric and semantically consistent regions. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV), 2009.
- [Gupta et al.(2014)Gupta, Girshick, Arbelaez, and Malik] Saurabh Gupta, Ross B. Girshick, Pablo Arbelaez, and Jitendra Malik. Learning rich features from RGB-D images for object detection and segmentation. CoRR, abs/1407.5736, 2014.
- [Gupta et al.(2015)Gupta, Hoffman, and Malik] Saurabh Gupta, Judy Hoffman, and Jitendra Malik. Cross modal distillation for supervision transfer. CoRR, abs/1507.00448, 2015.
- [Janoch et al.(2011)Janoch, Karayev, Jia, Barron, Fritz, Saenko, and Darrell] Allison Janoch, Sergey Karayev, Yangqing Jia, Jonathan T. Barron, Mario Fritz, Kate Saenko, and Trevor Darrell. A category-level 3-d object dataset: Putting the kinect to work. In 1st Workshop on Consumer Depth Cameras for Computer Vision (ICCV workshop), November 2011.
- [Krizhevsky et al.(2012)Krizhevsky, Sutskever, and Hinton] Alex Krizhevsky, Ilya Sutskever, and Geoffrey E. Hinton. Imagenet classification with deep convolutional neural networks. In F. Pereira, C. J. C. Burges, L. Bottou, and K. Q. Weinberger, editors, Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 25, pages 1097–1105. Curran Associates, Inc., 2012.
- [Li et al.(2016)Li, Wei, Liang, Dong, Xu, Feng, and Yan] Jianan Li, Yunchao Wei, Xiaodan Liang, Jian Dong, Tingfa Xu, Jiashi Feng, and Shuicheng Yan. Attentive contexts for object detection. CoRR, abs/1603.07415, 2016.
- [Lin et al.(2013)Lin, Fidler, and Urtasun] Dahua Lin, Sanja Fidler, and Raquel Urtasun. Holistic scene understanding for 3d object detection with rgbd cameras. In The IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV), December 2013.
- [Mottaghi et al.(2014)Mottaghi, Chen, Liu, Cho, Lee, Fidler, Urtasun, and Yuille] Roozbeh Mottaghi, Xianjie Chen, Xiaobai Liu, Nam-Gyu Cho, Seong-Whan Lee, Sanja Fidler, Raquel Urtasun, and Alan Yuille. The role of context for object detection and semantic segmentation in the wild. In The IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), June 2014.
- [Murphy et al.(2004)Murphy, Torralba, and Freeman] Kevin P Murphy, Antonio Torralba, and William T. Freeman. Using the forest to see the trees: A graphical model relating features, objects, and scenes. In S. Thrun, L. K. Saul, and B. Schölkopf, editors, Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 16, pages 1499–1506. MIT Press, 2004.
- [Nathan Silberman and Fergus(2012)] Pushmeet Kohli Nathan Silberman, Derek Hoiem and Rob Fergus. Indoor segmentation and support inference from rgbd images. In ECCV, 2012.
- [Ren et al.(2015)Ren, He, Girshick, and Sun] Shaoqing Ren, Kaiming He, Ross Girshick, and Jian Sun. Faster r-cnn: Towards real-time object detection with region proposal networks. In C. Cortes, N. D. Lawrence, D. D. Lee, M. Sugiyama, and R. Garnett, editors, Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 28, pages 91–99. Curran Associates, Inc., 2015.
- [Shet et al.(2007)Shet, Neumann, Ramesh, and Davis] V.D. Shet, J. Neumann, V. Ramesh, and L.S. Davis. Bilattice-based logical reasoning for human detection. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2007, pages 1–8, June 2007.
- [Shotton et al.(2006)Shotton, Winn, Rother, and Criminisi] Jamie Shotton, John Winn, Carsten Rother, and Antonio Criminisi. Textonboost: Joint appearance, shape and context modeling for mulit-class object recognition and segmentation. In European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV), January 2006.
- [Simonyan and Zisserman(2014)] K. Simonyan and A. Zisserman. Very deep convolutional networks for large-scale image recognition. CoRR, abs/1409.1556, 2014.
- [Song et al.(2015)Song, Lichtenberg, and Xiao] Shuran Song, Samuel P. Lichtenberg, and Jianxiong Xiao. SUN RGB-D: A RGB-D scene understanding benchmark suite. In The IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), June 2015.
- [Torralba(2003)] Antonio Torralba. Contextual priming for object detection. Int. J. Comput. Vision, 53(2):169–191, July 2003.
- [Tsochantaridis et al.(2004)Tsochantaridis, Hofmann, Joachims, and Altun] Ioannis Tsochantaridis, Thomas Hofmann, Thorsten Joachims, and Yasemin Altun. Support vector machine learning for interdependent and structured output spaces. In Proceedings of the Twenty-first International Conference on Machine Learning, ICML ’04, New York, NY, USA, 2004. ACM.
- [Xiao et al.(2013)Xiao, Owens, and Torralba] Jianxiong Xiao, Andrew Owens, and Antonio Torralba. SUN3D: A database of big spaces reconstructed using SfM and object labels. In ICCV, 2013.
- [Xu et al.(2015)Xu, Ba, Kiros, Cho, Courville, Salakhutdinov, Zemel, and Bengio] Kelvin Xu, Jimmy Ba, Ryan Kiros, Kyunghyun Cho, Aaron C. Courville, Ruslan Salakhutdinov, Richard S. Zemel, and Yoshua Bengio. Show, attend and tell: Neural image caption generation with visual attention. CoRR, abs/1502.03044, 2015.
- [Yao et al.(2012)Yao, Fidler, and Urtasun] Jian Yao, Sanja Fidler, and Raquel Urtasun. Describing the scene as a whole: Joint object detection, scene classification and semantic segmentation. In 2012 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, Providence, RI, USA, June 16-21, 2012, pages 702–709, 2012.
- [Zhang et al.(2016)Zhang, Bai, Kohli, Izadi, and Xiao] Yinda Zhang, Mingru Bai, Pushmeet Kohli, Shahram Izadi, and Jianxiong Xiao. DeepContext: Context-encoding neural pathways for 3D holistic scene understanding. In arXiv, 2016.