The Image of the Process Interpretation of Regular Expressions is Not Closed under Bisimulation Collapse

by   Clemens Grabmayer, et al.

Axiomatization and expressibility problems for Milner's process semantics (1984) of regular expressions modulo bisimilarity have turned out to be difficult for the full class of expressions with deadlock 0 and empty step 1. We report on a phenomenon that arises from the added presence of 1 when 0 is available, and that brings a crucial reason for this difficulty into focus. To wit, while interpretations of 1-free regular expressions are closed under bisimulation collapse, this is not the case for the interpretations of arbitrary regular expressions. Process graph interpretations of 1-free regular expressions satisfy the loop existence and elimination property LEE, which is preserved under bisimulation collapse. These features of LEE were applied for showing that an equational proof system for 1-free regular expressions modulo bisimilarity is complete, and that it is decidable in polynomial time whether a process graph is bisimilar to the interpretation of a 1-free regular expression. While interpretations of regular expressions do not satisfy the property LEE in general, we show that LEE can be recovered by refined interpretations as graphs with 1-transitions refined interpretations with 1-transitions (which are similar to silent steps for automata). This suggests that LEE can be expedient also for the general axiomatization and expressibility problems. But a new phenomenon emerges that needs to be addressed: the property of a process graph `to can be refined into a process graph with 1-transitions and with LEE' is not preserved under bisimulation collapse. We provide a 10-vertex graph with two 1-transitions that satisfies LEE, and in which a pair of bisimilar vertices cannot be collapsed on to each other while preserving the refinement property. This implies that the image of the process interpretation of regular expressions is not closed under bisimulation collapse.


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