The gig economy in Poland: evidence based on mobile big data

06/24/2021 ∙ by Maciej Beręsewicz, et al. ∙ 0

In this article we address the question of how to measure the size and characteristics of the platform economy. We propose a different, to sample surveys, approach based on smartphone data, which are passively collected through programmatic systems as part of online marketing. In particular, in our study we focus on two types of services: food delivery (Bolt Courier, Takeaway, Glover, Wolt and transport services (Bolt Driver, Free Now, iTaxi and Uber). Our results show that the platform economy in Poland is growing. In particular, with respect to food delivery and transportation services performed by means of applications, we observed a growing trend between January 2018 and December 2020. Taking into account the demographic structure of apps users, our results confirm findings from past studies: the majority of platform workers are young men but the age structure of app users is different for each of the two categories of services. Another surprising finding is that foreigners do not account for the majority of gig workers in Poland. When the number of platform workers is compared with corresponding working populations, the estimated share of active app users accounts for about 0.5-2 largest Polish cities.

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