The Geometry of Gaussoids

10/19/2017 ∙ by Tobias Boege, et al. ∙ 0

A gaussoid is a combinatorial structure that encodes independence in probability and statistics, just like matroids encode independence in linear algebra. The gaussoid axioms of Lnenicka and Matús are equivalent to compatibility with certain quadratic relations among principal and almost-principal minors of a symmetric matrix. We develop the geometric theory of gaussoids, based on the Lagrangian Grassmannian and its symmetries. We introduce oriented gaussoids and valuated gaussoids, thus connecting to real and tropical geometry. We classify small realizable and non-realizable gaussoids. Positive gaussoids are as nice as positroids: they are all realizable via graphical models.

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