The evolution of cooperation and diversity by integrated indirect reciprocity

by   Tatsuya Sasaki, et al.

Indirect reciprocity is one of the major mechanisms for the evolution of cooperation in human societies. There are two types of indirect reciprocity: upstream and downstream. Cooperation in downstream reciprocity follows the pattern, 'You helped someone, and I will help you'. The direction of cooperation is reversed in upstream reciprocity, which instead follows the pattern, 'You helped me, and I will help someone else'. In reality, these two types of indirect reciprocity often occur in combination. However, upstream and downstream reciprocity have mostly been studied theoretically in isolation. Here, we propose a new model that integrates both types. We apply the standard giving-game framework of indirect reciprocity and analyze the model by means of evolutionary game theory. We show that the model can result in the stable coexistence of altruistic reciprocators and free riders in well-mixed populations. We also found that considering inattention in the assessment rule can strengthen the stability of this mixed equilibrium, even resulting in a global attractor. Our results indicate that the cycles of forwarding help and rewarding help need to be established for creating and maintaining diversity and inclusion in a society.


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