The Curious Layperson: Fine-Grained Image Recognition without Expert Labels

11/05/2021
by   Subhabrata Choudhury, et al.
9

Most of us are not experts in specific fields, such as ornithology. Nonetheless, we do have general image and language understanding capabilities that we use to match what we see to expert resources. This allows us to expand our knowledge and perform novel tasks without ad-hoc external supervision. On the contrary, machines have a much harder time consulting expert-curated knowledge bases unless trained specifically with that knowledge in mind. Thus, in this paper we consider a new problem: fine-grained image recognition without expert annotations, which we address by leveraging the vast knowledge available in web encyclopedias. First, we learn a model to describe the visual appearance of objects using non-expert image descriptions. We then train a fine-grained textual similarity model that matches image descriptions with documents on a sentence-level basis. We evaluate the method on two datasets and compare with several strong baselines and the state of the art in cross-modal retrieval. Code is available at: https://github.com/subhc/clever

READ FULL TEXT VIEW PDF

page 1

page 2

page 5

page 9

08/19/2021

Counterfactual Attention Learning for Fine-Grained Visual Categorization and Re-identification

Attention mechanism has demonstrated great potential in fine-grained vis...
12/06/2021

Making a Bird AI Expert Work for You and Me

As powerful as fine-grained visual classification (FGVC) is, responding ...
01/20/2019

Visual Entailment: A Novel Task for Fine-Grained Image Understanding

Existing visual reasoning datasets such as Visual Question Answering (VQ...
05/21/2021

Sharing Pain: Using Domain Transfer Between Pain Types for Recognition of Sparse Pain Expressions in Horses

Orthopedic disorders are a common cause for euthanasia among horses, whi...
03/29/2022

Fine-Grained Visual Entailment

Visual entailment is a recently proposed multimodal reasoning task where...
09/07/2021

Fine-grained Hand Gesture Recognition in Multi-viewpoint Hand Hygiene

This paper contributes a new high-quality dataset for hand gesture recog...
03/30/2017

Dynamic Computational Time for Visual Attention

We propose a dynamic computational time model to accelerate the average ...

1 Introduction

Figure 1: Fine-Grained Image Recognition without Expert Labels. We propose a novel task that enables fine-grained classification without using expert class information (e.gbird species) during training. We frame the problem as document retrieval from general image descriptions by leveraging existing textual knowledge bases, such as Wikipedia.

Deep learning and the availability of large-scale labelled datasets have led to remarkable advances in image recognition tasks, including fine-grained recognition [Wah et al. (2011), Nilsback and Zisserman (2006), Horn et al. (2017)]

. The problem of fine-grained image recognition amounts to identifying subordinate-level categories, such as different species of birds, dogs or plants. Thus, the supervised learning regime in this case requires annotations provided by domain

experts or citizen scientists [Van Horn et al. (2015)].

While most people, unless professionally trained or enthusiasts, do not have knowledge in such specific domains, they are generally capable of consulting existing expert resources such as books or online encyclopedias, e.gWikipedia. As an example, let us consider bird identification. Amateur bird watchers typically rely on field guides to identify observed species. As a general instruction, one has to answer the question “what is most noticeable about this bird?” before skimming through the guide to find the best match to their observation. The answer to this question is typically a detailed description of the bird’s shape, size, plumage colors and patterns. Indeed, in Fig. 1, the non-expert observer might not be able to directly identify a bird as a “Vermillion Flycatcher”, but they can simply describe the appearance of the bird: “this is a bright red bird with black wings and tail and a pointed beak”. This description can be matched to an expert corpus to obtain the species and other expert-level information.

On the other hand, machines have a much harder time consulting off-the-shelf expert-curated knowledge bases. In particular, most algorithmic solutions are designed to address a specific task with datasets constructed ad-hoc to serve precisely this purpose. Our goal, instead, is to investigate whether it is possible to re-purpose general image and text understanding capabilities to allow machines to consult already existing textual knowledge bases to address a new task, such as recognizing a bird.

We introduce a novel task inspired by the way a layperson would tackle fine-grained recognition from visual input; we name this CLEVER, i.eCurious Layperson-to-Expert Visual Entity R

ecognition. Given an image of a subordinate-level object category, the task is to retrieve the relevant document from a large, expertly-curated text corpus; to this end, we only allow non-expert supervision for learning to describe the image. We assume that: (1) the corpus dedicates a separate entry to each category, as is, for example, the case in encyclopedia entries for bird or plant species, etc., (2) there exist no paired data of images and documents or expert labels during training, and (3) to model a layperson’s capabilities, we have access to general image and text understanding tools that do not use expert knowledge, such as image descriptions or language models.

Given this definition, the task classifies as weakly-supervised in the taxonomy of learning problems. We note that there are fundamental differences to related topics, such as image-to-text retrieval and unsupervised image classification. Despite a significant amount of prior work in image-to-text or text-to-image retrieval 

[Peng et al. (2017a), Wang et al. (2017), Zhen et al. (2019), Hu et al. (2019), He et al. (2019)], the general assumption is that images and corresponding documents are paired for training a model. In contrast to unsupervised image classification, the difference is that here we are interested in semantically labelling images using a secondary modality, instead of grouping similar images [Asano et al. (2020), Caron et al. (2020), Van Gansbeke et al. (2020)].

To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to tackle the task of fine-grained image recognition without expert supervision. Since the target corpus is not required during training, the search domain is easily extendable to any number of categories/species—an ideal use case when retrieving documents from dynamic knowledge bases, such as Wikipedia. We provide extensive evaluation of our method and also compare to approaches in cross-modal retrieval, despite using significantly reduced supervision.

2 Related Work

In this paper, we address a novel problem (CLEVER). Next we describe in detail how it differs from related problems in the computer vision and natural language processing literature and summarise the differences with respect to how class information is used in

Section 2.

Fine-Grained Recognition.

Class Information
Task Train Test
FGVR K K
ZSL K U
GZSL K K + U
CLEVER U U
Table 1: Overview of related topics (K: known, U: unknown).

The goal of fine-grained visual recognition (FGVR) is categorising objects at sub-ordinate level, such as species of animals or plants [Wah et al. (2011), Van Horn et al. (2015), Van Horn et al. (2018), Nilsback and Zisserman (2008), Kumar et al. (2012)]. Large-scale annotated datasets require domain experts and are thus difficult to collect. FGVR is more challenging than coarse-level image classification as it involves categories with fewer discriminative cues and fewer labeled samples. To address this problem, supervised methods exploit side information such as part annotations [Zhang et al. (2014)], attributes [Vedaldi et al. (2014)], natural language descriptions [He and Peng (2017)], noisy web data [Krause et al. (2016), Xu et al. (2016), Gebru et al. (2017)] or humans in the loop [Branson et al. (2010), Deng et al. (2015), Cui et al. (2016)]. Attempts to reduce supervision in FGVR are mostly targeted towards eliminating auxiliary labels, e.gpart annotations [Zheng et al. (2017), Simon and Rodner (2015), Ge et al. (2019), Huang and Li (2020)]. In contrast, our goal is fine-grained recognition without access to categorical labels during training. Our approach only relies on side information (captions) provided by laymen and is thus unsupervised from the perspective of “expert knowledge”.

Zero/Few Shot Learning.

Zero-shot learning (ZSL) is the task of learning a classifier for unseen classes [Xian et al. (2018a)]. A classifier is generated from a description of an object in a secondary modality, mapping semantic representations to class space in order to recognize said object in images [Socher et al. (2013)]. Various modalities have been used as auxiliary information: word embeddings [Frome et al. (2013), Xian et al. (2016)], hierarchical embeddings [Kampffmeyer et al. (2019)], attributes [Farhadi et al. (2009), Akata et al. (2015)] or Wikipedia articles [Elhoseiny et al. (2017), Zhu et al. (2018), Elhoseiny et al. (2016), Qiao et al. (2016)]. Most recent work uses generative models conditioned on class descriptions to synthesize training examples for unseen categories [Long et al. (2017), Kodirov et al. (2017), Felix et al. (2018), Xian et al. (2019), Vyas et al. (2020), Xian et al. (2018b)]. The multi-modal and often fine-grained nature of the standard and generalised (G)ZSL task renders it related to our problem. However, different from the (G)ZSL settings our method uses neither class supervision during training nor image-document pairs as in [Elhoseiny et al. (2017), Zhu et al. (2018), Elhoseiny et al. (2016), Qiao et al. (2016)].

Cross-Modal and Information Retrieval.

While information retrieval deals with extracting information from document collections [Manning et al. (2008)], cross-modal retrieval aims at retrieving relevant information across various modalities, e.gimage-to-text or vice versa. One of the core problems in information retrieval is ranking documents given some query, with a classical example being Okapi BM25 [Robertson et al. (1995)]. With the advent of transformers [Vaswani et al. (2017)] and BERT [Devlin et al. (2019)], state-of-the-art document retrieval is achieved in two-steps; an initial ranking based on keywords followed by computationally intensive BERT-based re-ranking [Nogueira and Cho (2019), Nogueira et al. (2020), Yilmaz et al. (2019), MacAvaney et al. (2019)]. In cross-modal retrieval, the common approach is to learn a shared representation space for multiple modalities [Peng et al. (2017a), Andrew et al. (2013), Wang and Livescu (2016), Peng et al. (2016), Peng et al. (2017b), Wang et al. (2017), Zhen et al. (2019), Hu et al. (2019), He et al. (2019)]. In addition to paired data in various domains, some methods also exploit auxiliary semantic labels; for example, the Wikipedia benchmark [Pereira et al. (2013)] provides broad category labels such as history, music, sport, etc.

We depart substantially from the typical assumptions made in this area. Notably, with the exception of [He et al. (2019), Wang et al. (2009)], this setting has not been explored in fine-grained domains, but generally targets higher-level content association between images and documents. Furthermore, one major difference between our approach and cross-modal retrieval, including [He et al. (2019), Wang et al. (2009)], is that we do not assume paired data between the input domain (images) and the target domain (documents). We address the lack of such pairs using an intermediary modality (captions) that allows us to perform retrieval directly in the text domain.

Natural Language Inference (NLI) and Semantic Textual Similarity (STS).

Also related to our work, in natural language processing, the goal of the NLI task is to recognize textual entailment, i.egiven a pair of sentences (premise and hypothesis), the goal is to label the hypothesis as entailment (true), contradiction (false) or neutral (undetermined) with respect to the premise [Bowman et al. (2015), Williams et al. (2018)]. STS measures the degree of semantic similarity between two sentences [Agirre et al. (2012), Agirre et al. (2013)]. Both tasks play an important role in semantic search and information retrieval and are currently dominated by the transformer architecture [Vaswani et al. (2017), Devlin et al. (2019), Liu et al. (2019), Reimers and Gurevych (2019)]. Inspired by these tasks, we propose a sentence similarity regime that is domain-specific, paying attention to fine-grained semantics.

3 Method

We introduce the problem of layperson-to-expert visual entity recognition (CLEVER), which we address via image-based document retrieval. Formally, we are given a set of images to be labelled given a corpus of expert documents , where each document corresponds to a fine-grained image category and there exist categories in total. As a concrete example, can be a set of images of various bird species and a bird identification corpus constructed from specialized websites (with one article per species). Crucially, the pairing of and is not known, i.eno expert task supervision is available during training. Therefore, the mapping from images to documents cannot be learned directly but can be discovered through the use of non-expert image descriptions for image .

Our method consists of three distinct parts. First, we learn, using “layperson’s supervision”, an image captioning model that uses simple color, shape and part descriptions. Second, we train a model for Fine-Grained Sentence Matching (FGSM). The FGSM model takes as input a pair of sentences and predicts whether they are descriptions of the same object. Finally, we use the FGSM to score the documents in the expert corpus via voting. As there is one document per class, the species corresponding to the highest-scoring document is returned as the final class prediction for the image. The overall inference process is illustrated in 

Fig. 2.

3.1 Fine-grained Sentence Matching

The overall goal of our method is to match images to expert documents — however, in absence of paired training data, learning a cross-domain mapping is not possible. On the other hand, describing an image is an easy task for most humans, as it usually does not require domain knowledge. It is therefore possible to leverage image descriptions as an intermediary for learning to map images to an expert corpus.

To that end, the core component of our approach is the FGSM model that scores the visual similarity of two descriptions and . We propose to train in a manner similar to the textual entailment (NLI) task in natural language processing. The difference to NLI is that the information that needs to be extracted here is fine-grained and domain-specific e.g “a bird with blue wings” vs. “this is a uniformly yellow bird”. Since we do not have annotated sentence pairs for this task, we have to create them synthetically. Instead of the terms entailment and contradiction, here we use positive and negative to emphasize that the goal is to find matches (or mismatches) between image descriptions.

Figure 2: Overview. We train a model for fine-grained sentence matching (FGSM) using layerperson’s annotations, i.eclass-agnostic image descriptions. At test time, we score documents from a relevant corpus and use the top-ranked document to label the image.

We propose to model as a sentence encoder, performing the semantic comparison of in embedding space. Despite their widespread success in downstream tasks, most transformer-based language models are notoriously bad at producing semantically meaningful sentence embeddings [Reimers and Gurevych (2019), Li et al. (2020)]. We thus follow [Reimers and Gurevych (2019)] in learning an appropriate textual similarity model with a Siamese architecture built on a pre-trained language transformer. This also allows us to leverage the power of large language models while maintaining efficiency by computing an embedding for each input independently and only compare embeddings as a last step. To this end, we compute a similarity score for and as , where denotes concatenation, and and are lightweight MLPs operating on the average-pooled output of a large language model with the shorthand notation .

Training.

One requirement is that the FGSM model should be able to identify fine-grained similarities between pairs of sentences. This is in contrast to the standard STS and NLI tasks in natural language understanding which determine the relationship (or degree of similarity) of a sentence pair on a coarser semantic level. Since our end-goal is visual recognition, we instead train the model to emphasize visual cues and nuanced appearance differences.

Let be the set of human-annotated descriptions for a given image . Positive training pairs are generated by exploiting the fact that, commonly, each image has been described by multiple annotators; for example in CUB-200 [Wah et al. (2011)] there are captions per image. Thus, each pair (from ) of descriptions of the same image can be used as a positive pair. The negative counterparts are then sampled from the complement , i.eamong the available descriptions for all other images in the dataset. We construct this dataset with an equal amount of samples for both classes and train with a binary cross entropy loss.

Inference.

During inference the sentence embeddings for each sentence in each document can be precomputed and only needs to be evaluated dynamically given an image and its corresponding captions, as described in the next section. This greatly reduces the memory and time requirements.

3.2 Document Scoring

Although trained from image descriptions alone, the FGSM model can take any sentence as input and, at test time, we use the trained model to score sentences from an expert corpus against image descriptions. Specifically, we assign a score to each expert document given a set of descriptions for the -th image:

(1)

Since there are several descriptions in and sentences in , we compute the final document score as an average of individual predictions (scores) of all pairs of descriptions and sentences. Aggregating scores across the whole corpus

, we can then compute the probability

of a document given image and assign the document (and consequently class) with the highest probability to the image.

3.3 Bridging the Domain Gap

While training the FGSM model, we have so far only used laypersons’ descriptions, disregarding the expert corpus. However, we can expect the documents to contain significantly more information than visual descriptions. In the case of bird species, encyclopedia entries usually also describe behavior, migration, conservation status, etc. In this section, we thus employ two mechanisms to bridge the gap between the image descriptions and the documents.

Neutral Sentences.

We introduce a third, neutral class to the classification problem, designed to capture sentences that do not provide relevant (visual) information. We generate neutral training examples by pairing an image description with sentences from the documents (or other descriptions) that do not have any nouns in common. Instead of binary cross entropy, we train the three-class model (positive/neutral/negative) with softmax cross entropy.

Score Distribution Prior.

Despite the absence of paired training data, we can still impose priors on the document scoring. To this end, we consider the probability distribution

over the entire corpus given an image in a training batch . We can then derive a regularizer that operates at batch-level:

(2)

where

denotes the inner product of two vectors. The intuition of the two terms of the regularizer is as follows.

is maximal when the distribution assigns all mass to a single document. Since the score is averaged over all captions of one image, this additionally has the side effect of encouraging all captions of one image to vote for the same document. The second term of then encourages the distributions of two different images to be orthogonal, favoring the assignment of images uniformly across all documents.

Since requires evaluation over the whole document corpus for every image, we first pre-train , including the large transformer model , (c.f. Section 3.1). After convergence, we extract sentence features for all documents and image descriptions and train only the MLPs and with , where balances the 3-class cross entropy loss and the regularizer.

4 Experiments

We validate our method empirically for bird and plant identification. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to consider this task, thus in absence of state-of-the-art methods, we ablate the different components of our model and compare to several strong baselines.

4.1 Datasets and Experimental Setup

Datasets.

We evaluate our method on Caltech-UCSD Birds-200-2011 (CUB-200) [Wah et al. (2011)] and the Oxford-102 Flowers (FLO) dataset [Nilsback and Zisserman (2006)]. For both datasets, Reed et al. (2016) have collected several visual descriptions per image by crowd-sourcing to non-experts on Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT). We further collect for each class a corresponding expert document from specialised websites, such as AllAboutBirds111https://allaboutbirds.com (AAB) and Wikipedia.

CUB-200 FLO
Method top-1 top-5 MR top-1 top-5 MR
random guess 0.5 2.5 100.0 0.9 4.9 51.0
SRoBERTa-STSb Reimers and Gurevych (2019) (no-ft) 1.3 6.4 73.4 1.1 7.7 45.2
SRoBERTa-NLI Liu et al. (2019) (no-ft) 1.9 5.3 81.3 0.9 5.7 48.2
Okapi BM25 Robertson et al. (1995) 1.0 7.5 78.2 1.6 8.0 43.9
TF-IDF Jones (1972) 2.2 9.7 72.1 1.4 5.0 45.2
RoBERTa Liu et al. (2019) 4.3 16.6 44.6 1.1 9.6 42.6
ours 7.9 28.6 31.9 6.2 14.2 39.7
Table 2: Comparison to baselines. We report the retrieval performance of our method on CUB-200 and Oxford-102 Flowers (FLO) and compare to various strong baselines.

Setup.

We use the image-caption pairs to train two image captioning models: “Show, Attend and Tell” (SAT) Xu et al. (2015) and AoANet Huang et al. (2019). Unless otherwise specified, we report the performance of our model based on their ensemble, i.ecombining predictions from both models. As the backbone of our sentence transformer model, we use RoBERTa-large Liu et al. (2019) fine-tuned on NLI and STS datasets using the setup of Reimers and Gurevych (2019). Please see the appendix for further implementation, architecture, dataset and training details.

We use three metrics to evaluate the performance on the benchmark datasets. We compute top-1 and top-5 per-class retrieval accuracy and report the overall average. Additionally, we compute the mean rank (MR) of the target document for each class. Here, retrieval accuracy is identical to classification accuracy, since there is only a single relevant article per category.

4.2 Baseline Comparisons

Since this work is the first to explore the mapping of images to expert documents without expert supervision, we compare our method to several strong baselines (Table 2).

Our FGSM performs text-based retrieval, we evaluate current text retrieval systems. TF-IDF: Term frequency-inverse document frequency (TF-IDF) is widely used for unsupervised document retrieval Jones (1972). For each image, we use the predicted captions as queries and use the TF-IDF textual representation for document ranking instead of our model. We empirically found the cosine distance and -grams with to perform best for TF-IDF. BM25: Similar to TF-IDF, BM25 Robertson et al. (1995) is another common measure for document ranking based on -gram frequencies. We use the BM25 Okapi implementation from the python package rank-bm25 with default settings. RoBERTa: One advantage of processing caption-sentence pairs with a Siamese architecture, such as SBERT/SRoBERTa Reimers and Gurevych (2019), is the reduced complexity. Nonetheless, we have trained a transformer baseline for text classification, using the same backbone Liu et al. (2019), concatenating each sentence pair with a SEP token and training as a binary classification problem. We apply this model to score documents, instead of FGSM, aggregating scores at sentence-level. SRoBERTa-NLI/STSb: Finally, to evaluate the importance of learning fine-grained sentence similarities, we also measure the performance of the same model trained only on the NLI and STSb benchmarks Reimers and Gurevych (2019), without further fine-tuning. Following Reimers and Gurevych (2019)

we rank documents based on the cosine similarity between the caption and sentence embeddings.

Our method outperforms all bag-of-words and learned baselines. Approaches such as TF-IDF and BM25 are very efficient, albeit less performant than learned models. Notably, the closest in performance to our model is the transformer baseline (RoBERTa), which comes at a large computational cost ( sec vs.  sec for our model per image on CUB-200).

Method top-1 top-5 MR
user interaction 11.9 37.5 24.8
FGSM + cosine 4.5 17.8 35.5
FGSM w/ SAT 4.3 15.0 42.9
FGSM w/ AoANet 5.7 20.8 38.3
FGSM w/ ensemble 5.9 20.0 36.1
FGSM [2-cls] 7.4 24.6 29.9
FGSM [3-cls] 7.9 28.6 31.9

Table 3: Ablation and user study. On CUB-200 we evaluate scoring functions, captioning models and the regularizer .
Method sup. top-1 top-5 MR
random guess 2.0 10.0 25.0
ViLBERT Lu et al. (2019) 3.5 14.8 20.2
TF-IDF Jones (1972) 7.2 28.6 18.9
CLIP Radford et al. (2021) 10.0 32.9 14.0
DSCMR Zhen et al. (2019) 13.5 34.7 15.2
ours 20.9 50.7 9.6
Table 4: Comparison to cross-media retrieval. We evaluate the performance of methods on the ZSL split of CUB-200. Our method performs favorably against existing approaches trained with more supervision.

4.3 Ablation & User Interaction

We ablate the different components of our approach in Table 4. We first investigate the use of a different scoring mechanism, i.ethe cosine similarity between the embeddings of and as in Reimers and Gurevych (2019); we found this to perform worse (FGSM + cosine). We also study the influence of the captioning model on the final performance. We evaluate captions obtained by two methods, SAT Xu et al. (2015) and AoANet Huang et al. (2019), as well as their ensemble. The ensemble improves performance thanks to higher variability in the image descriptions. Next, we evaluate the performance of our model after the final training phase, with the proposed regularizer and the inclusion of neutral pairs (Section 3.3). imposes prior knowledge about the expected class distribution over the dataset and thus stabilizes the training, resulting in improved performance ([2-cls]). Further, through the regularizer and neutral sentences ([3-cls]), FGSM is exposed to the target corpus during training, which helps reduce the domain shift during inference compared to training on image descriptions alone (FGSM w/ ensemble).

Finally, our method enables user interaction, i.eallowing a user to directly enter own descriptions, replacing the automatic description model. In Table 4 we have simulated this by evaluating with ground-truth instead of predicted descriptions. Naturally, we find that human descriptions indeed perform better, though the performance gap is small. We attribute this gap to a much higher diversity in the human annotations. Current image captioning models still have diversity issues, which also explains why our ensemble variant improves the results.

Figure 3: Qualitative Results (CUB-200). We show examples of input images and their predicted captions, followed by the top-5 retrieved documents (classes). For illustration purposes, we show a random image for each document; the image is not used for matching.

4.4 Comparison with Cross-Modal Retrieval

Since the nature of the problem presented here is in fact cross-modal, we adapt a representative method, DSCMR Zhen et al. (2019), to our data to compare to the state of the art in cross-media retrieval. We note that such an approach requires image-document pairs as training samples, thus using more supervision than our method. Instead of using image descriptions as an intermediary for retrieval, DSCMR thus performs retrieval monolithically, mapping the modalities in a shared representation space. We argue that, although this is the go-to approach in broader category domains, it may be sub-optimal in the context of fine-grained categorization.

Since in our setting each category (species) is represented by a single article, in the scenario that a supervised model sees all available categories during training, the cross-modal retrieval problem degenerates to a classification task. Hence, for a meaningful comparison, we train both our model and DSCMR on the CUB-200 splits for ZSL Xian et al. (2018a) to evaluate on 50 unseen categories. We report the results in Table 4, including a TF-IDF baseline on the same split. Despite using no image-documents pairs for training, our method still performs significantly better.

Additionally, we compare to representative methods from the vision-and-language representation learning space. ViLBERT Lu et al. (2019) is a multi-modal transformer model capable of learning joint representations of visual content and natural language. It is pre-trained on 3.3M image-caption pairs with two proxy tasks. We use their multi-modal alignment prediction mechanism to compute the alignment of the sentences in a document to a target image, similar to ViLBERT’s zero-shot experiments. The sentence scores are averaged to get the document alignment score and the document with the maximum score is chosen as the class. Finally, we compare to CLIP Radford et al. (2021), that learns a multimodal embedding space from 400M image-text pairs. CLIP predicts image and sentence embeddings with separate encoders. For a target image we score each sentence using cosine similarity and average across the document for the final score. CLIP’s training data is not public, but we find that there is a high possibility it does indeed contain expert labels as removing class names from documents hurts its performance.

4.5 Qualitative Results

In Fig. 3, we show qualitative retrieval results. The input image is shown on the left followed by the predicted descriptions. We then show the top-5 retrieved documents/classes together with an example image for the reader. Note that the example images are not used for matching, as the FGSM module operates on text only. We find that in most cases, even when the retrieved document does not match the ground truth class, the visual appearance is still similar. This is especially noticeable in families of birds for which discriminating among individual species is considered to be particularly difficult even for humans, e.gwarblers (last row).

5 Discussion

Like with any method that aims to reduce supervision, our method is not perfect. There are multiple avenues where our approach can be further optimized.

First, we observe that models trained for image captioning tend to produce short sentences that lack distinctiveness, focusing on the major features of the object rather than providing detailed fine-grained descriptions of the object’s unique aspects. We believe there is a scope for improvement if the captioning models could extensively describe each different part and attribute of the object. We have tried to mitigate this issue by using an ensemble of two popular captioning networks. However, using multiple models and sampling multiple descriptions may lead to redundancy. Devising image captioning models that produce diverse and distinct fine-grained image descriptions may provide improved performance on CLEVER task; there is an active area of research Wang et al. (2020a, b) that is looking into this problem.

Second, the proposed approach to scoring a document given an image uses all the sentences in the document classifying them as positive, negative or neutral with respect to each input caption. Given that the information provided by an expert document might be noisy, i.enot necessarily related to the visual domain, it is likely worthwhile to develop a filtering mechanism for relevancy, effectively using only a subset of the sentences for scoring.

Finally, in-domain regularization results in a significant performance boost (Table 4), which implies that the CLEVER task is susceptible to the domain gap between laypeople’s descriptions and the expert corpus. Language models such as BERT/RoBERTa partially address this problem already by learning general vocabulary, semantics and grammar during pre-training on large text corpora, enabling generalization to a new corpus without explicit training. However, further research in reducing this domain gap seems worthwhile.

6 Conclusion

We have shown that it is possible to address fine-grained image recognition without the use of expert training labels by leveraging existing knowledge bases, such as Wikipedia. This is the first work to tackle this challenging problem, with performance gains over the state of the art on cross-media retrieval, despite their training with image-document pairs. While humans can easily access and retrieve information from such knowledge bases, CLEVER remains a challenging learning problem that merits future research.

Acknowledgments

S. C. is supported by a scholarship sponsored by Facebook. I. L. is supported by the European Research Council (ERC) grant IDIU-638009 and EPSRC VisualAI EP/T028572/1. C. R. is supported by Innovate UK (project 71653) on behalf of UK Research and Innovation (UKRI) and ERC grant IDIU-638009. A. V. is supported by ERC grant IDIU-638009. We thank Andrew Brown for valuable discussions.

References

  • Agirre et al. (2012) Eneko Agirre, Daniel Cer, Mona Diab, and Aitor Gonzalez-Agirre. SemEval-2012 task 6: A pilot on semantic textual similarity. In SEM 2012, pages 385–393, 7-8 June 2012.
  • Agirre et al. (2013) Eneko Agirre, Daniel Cer, Mona Diab, Aitor Gonzalez-Agirre, and Weiwei Guo. *SEM 2013 shared task: Semantic textual similarity. In SEM 2013, pages 32–43, June 2013.
  • Akata et al. (2015) Zeynep Akata, Florent Perronnin, Zaid Harchaoui, and Cordelia Schmid. Label-embedding for image classification. TPAMI, 38(7):1425–1438, 2015.
  • Andrew et al. (2013) Galen Andrew, Raman Arora, Jeff Bilmes, and Karen Livescu. Deep canonical correlation analysis. In ICML, pages 1247–1255. PMLR, 2013.
  • Asano et al. (2020) Yuki M. Asano, Christian Rupprecht, and Andrea Vedaldi. Self-labelling via simultaneous clustering and representation learning. In ICLR, 2020.
  • Bowman et al. (2015) Samuel R. Bowman, Gabor Angeli, Christopher Potts, and Christopher D. Manning. A large annotated corpus for learning natural language inference. In EMNLP. Association for Computational Linguistics, 2015.
  • Branson et al. (2010) Steve Branson, Catherine Wah, Florian Schroff, Boris Babenko, Peter Welinder, Pietro Perona, and Serge Belongie. Visual recognition with humans in the loop. In ECCV, pages 438–451. Springer, 2010.
  • Caron et al. (2020) Mathilde Caron, Ishan Misra, Julien Mairal, Priya Goyal, Piotr Bojanowski, and Armand Joulin. Unsupervised learning of visual features by contrasting cluster assignments. NeurIPS, 33, 2020.
  • Cui et al. (2016) Yin Cui, Feng Zhou, Yuanqing Lin, and Serge Belongie. Fine-grained categorization and dataset bootstrapping using deep metric learning with humans in the loop. In CVPR, pages 1153–1162, 2016.
  • Deng et al. (2015) Jia Deng, Jonathan Krause, Michael Stark, and Li Fei-Fei. Leveraging the wisdom of the crowd for fine-grained recognition. TPAMI, 38(4):666–676, 2015.
  • Devlin et al. (2019) J. Devlin, Ming-Wei Chang, Kenton Lee, and Kristina Toutanova. Bert: Pre-training of deep bidirectional transformers for language understanding. In NAACL-HLT, 2019.
  • Elhoseiny et al. (2016) Mohamed Elhoseiny, Ahmed Elgammal, and Babak Saleh. Write a classifier: Predicting visual classifiers from unstructured text. TPAMI, 39(12):2539–2553, 2016.
  • Elhoseiny et al. (2017) Mohamed Elhoseiny, Yizhe Zhu, Han Zhang, and Ahmed Elgammal. Link the head to the" beak": Zero shot learning from noisy text description at part precision. In CVPR, pages 6288–6297. IEEE, 2017.
  • Farhadi et al. (2009) A. Farhadi, I. Endres, D. Hoiem, and D. Forsyth. Describing objects by their attributes. In CVPR, pages 1778–1785, 2009.
  • Felix et al. (2018) Rafael Felix, Vijay BG Kumar, Ian Reid, and Gustavo Carneiro. Multi-modal cycle-consistent generalized zero-shot learning. In ECCV, pages 21–37, 2018.
  • Frome et al. (2013) Andrea Frome, Gregory S. Corrado, Jonathon Shlens, Samy Bengio, Jeffrey Dean, Marc’Aurelio Ranzato, and Tomas Mikolov. DeViSE: A deep visual-semantic embedding model. In Proc. NeurIPS, 2013.
  • Ge et al. (2019) Weifeng Ge, Xiangru Lin, and Yizhou Yu. Weakly supervised complementary parts models for fine-grained image classification from the bottom up. In CVPR, pages 3034–3043, 2019.
  • Gebru et al. (2017) Timnit Gebru, Judy Hoffman, and Li Fei-Fei. Fine-grained recognition in the wild: A multi-task domain adaptation approach. In ICCV, pages 1349–1358, 2017.
  • He and Peng (2017) Xiangteng He and Yuxin Peng. Fine-grained image classification via combining vision and language. In CVPR, pages 5994–6002, 2017.
  • He et al. (2019) Xiangteng He, Yuxin Peng, and Liu Xie. A new benchmark and approach for fine-grained cross-media retrieval. In ACM Multimedia, pages 1740–1748, 2019.
  • Horn et al. (2017) Grant Van Horn, Oisin Mac Aodha, Yang Song, Alexander Shepard, Hartwig Adam, Pietro Perona, and Serge J. Belongie. The iNaturalist challenge 2017 dataset. arXiv.cs, abs/1707.06642, 2017.
  • Hu et al. (2019) Peng Hu, Xu Wang, Liangli Zhen, and Dezhong Peng. Separated variational hashing networks for cross-modal retrieval. In ACM Multimedia, pages 1721–1729, 2019.
  • Huang et al. (2019) Lun Huang, Wenmin Wang, Jie Chen, and Xiao-Yong Wei. Attention on attention for image captioning. In ICCV, pages 4634–4643, 2019.
  • Huang and Li (2020) Zixuan Huang and Yin Li. Interpretable and accurate fine-grained recognition via region grouping. In CVPR, pages 8662–8672, 2020.
  • Jones (1972) Karen Sparck Jones. A statistical interpretation of term specificity and its application in retrieval. Journal of documentation, 1972.
  • Kampffmeyer et al. (2019) Michael Kampffmeyer, Yinbo Chen, Xiaodan Liang, Hao Wang, Yujia Zhang, and Eric P Xing.

    Rethinking knowledge graph propagation for zero-shot learning.

    In CVPR, pages 11487–11496, 2019.
  • Kodirov et al. (2017) Elyor Kodirov, Tao Xiang, and Shaogang Gong.

    Semantic autoencoder for zero-shot learning.

    In CVPR, pages 3174–3183, 2017.
  • Krause et al. (2016) Jonathan Krause, Benjamin Sapp, Andrew Howard, Howard Zhou, Alexander Toshev, Tom Duerig, James Philbin, and Li Fei-Fei. The unreasonable effectiveness of noisy data for fine-grained recognition. In ECCV, pages 301–320. Springer, 2016.
  • Kumar et al. (2012) Neeraj Kumar, Peter N Belhumeur, Arijit Biswas, David W Jacobs, W John Kress, Ida C Lopez, and João VB Soares. Leafsnap: A computer vision system for automatic plant species identification. In ECCV, pages 502–516. Springer, 2012.
  • Li et al. (2020) Bohan Li, Hao Zhou, Junxian He, Mingxuan Wang, Yiming Yang, and Lei Li. On the sentence embeddings from bert for semantic textual similarity. In EMNLP, pages 9119–9130, 2020.
  • Liu et al. (2019) Yinhan Liu, Myle Ott, Naman Goyal, Jingfei Du, Mandar Joshi, Danqi Chen, Omer Levy, Mike Lewis, Luke Zettlemoyer, and Veselin Stoyanov. Roberta: A robustly optimized bert pretraining approach. arXiv preprint arXiv:1907.11692, 2019.
  • Long et al. (2017) Yang Long, Li Liu, Ling Shao, Fumin Shen, Guiguang Ding, and Jungong Han. From zero-shot learning to conventional supervised classification: Unseen visual data synthesis. In CVPR, pages 1627–1636, 2017.
  • Lu et al. (2019) Jiasen Lu, Dhruv Batra, Devi Parikh, and Stefan Lee. Vilbert: Pretraining task-agnostic visiolinguistic representations for vision-and-language tasks. In NeurIPS, pages 13–23, 2019.
  • MacAvaney et al. (2019) Sean MacAvaney, Andrew Yates, Arman Cohan, and Nazli Goharian. Cedr: Contextualized embeddings for document ranking. In Proceedings of the 42nd Intl. ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, pages 1101–1104, 2019.
  • Manning et al. (2008) Christopher D Manning, Hinrich Schütze, and Prabhakar Raghavan. Introduction to information retrieval. Cambridge university press, 2008.
  • Nilsback and Zisserman (2006) Maria-Elena Nilsback and Andrew Zisserman. A visual vocabulary for flower classification. In CVPR, volume 2, pages 1447–1454, 2006.
  • Nilsback and Zisserman (2008) Maria-Elena Nilsback and Andrew Zisserman. Automated flower classification over a large number of classes. In 2008 Sixth Indian Conference on Computer Vision, Graphics & Image Processing, pages 722–729. IEEE, 2008.
  • Nogueira and Cho (2019) Rodrigo Nogueira and Kyunghyun Cho. Passage re-ranking with bert. arXiv preprint arXiv:1901.04085, 2019.
  • Nogueira et al. (2020) Rodrigo Nogueira, Zhiying Jiang, and Jimmy Lin. Document ranking with a pretrained sequence-to-sequence model. EMNLP, 2020.
  • Peng et al. (2016) Yuxin Peng, Xin Huang, and Jinwei Qi. Cross-media shared representation by hierarchical learning with multiple deep networks. In IJCAI, pages 3846–3853, 2016.
  • Peng et al. (2017a) Yuxin Peng, Xin Huang, and Yunzhen Zhao. An overview of cross-media retrieval: Concepts, methodologies, benchmarks, and challenges. IEEE Transactions on circuits and systems for video technology, 28(9):2372–2385, 2017a.
  • Peng et al. (2017b) Yuxin Peng, Jinwei Qi, Xin Huang, and Yuxin Yuan. Ccl: Cross-modal correlation learning with multigrained fusion by hierarchical network. IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, 20(2):405–420, 2017b.
  • Pereira et al. (2013) Jose Costa Pereira, Emanuele Coviello, Gabriel Doyle, Nikhil Rasiwasia, Gert RG Lanckriet, Roger Levy, and Nuno Vasconcelos. On the role of correlation and abstraction in cross-modal multimedia retrieval. TPAMI, 36(3):521–535, 2013.
  • Qiao et al. (2016) Ruizhi Qiao, Lingqiao Liu, Chunhua Shen, and Anton Van Den Hengel. Less is more: zero-shot learning from online textual documents with noise suppression. In CVPR, pages 2249–2257, 2016.
  • Radford et al. (2021) Alec Radford, Jong Wook Kim, Chris Hallacy, Aditya Ramesh, Gabriel Goh, Sandhini Agarwal, Girish Sastry, Amanda Askell, Pamela Mishkin, Jack Clark, et al. Learning transferable visual models from natural language supervision. ICML, 2021.
  • Reed et al. (2016) Scott Reed, Zeynep Akata, Honglak Lee, and Bernt Schiele. Learning deep representations of fine-grained visual descriptions. In CVPR, pages 49–58, 2016.
  • Reimers and Gurevych (2019) Nils Reimers and Iryna Gurevych. Sentence-bert: Sentence embeddings using siamese bert-networks. In EMNLP-IJCNLP, pages 3973–3983, 2019.
  • Robertson et al. (1995) Stephen E Robertson, Steve Walker, Susan Jones, Micheline M Hancock-Beaulieu, Mike Gatford, et al. Okapi at trec-3. Nist Special Publication Sp, 109:109, 1995.
  • Simon and Rodner (2015) Marcel Simon and Erik Rodner. Neural activation constellations: Unsupervised part model discovery with convolutional networks. In ICCV, pages 1143–1151, 2015.
  • Socher et al. (2013) Richard Socher, Milind Ganjoo, Christopher D Manning, and Andrew Ng. Zero-shot learning through cross-modal transfer. In NeurIPS, pages 935–943, 2013.
  • Van Gansbeke et al. (2020) Wouter Van Gansbeke, Simon Vandenhende, Stamatios Georgoulis, Marc Proesmans, and Luc Van Gool. Scan: Learning to classify images without labels. In ECCV, 2020.
  • Van Horn et al. (2015) Grant Van Horn, Steve Branson, Ryan Farrell, Scott Haber, Jessie Barry, Panos Ipeirotis, Pietro Perona, and Serge Belongie. Building a bird recognition app and large scale dataset with citizen scientists: The fine print in fine-grained dataset collection. In CVPR, pages 595–604, 2015.
  • Van Horn et al. (2018) Grant Van Horn, Oisin Mac Aodha, Yang Song, Yin Cui, Chen Sun, Alex Shepard, Hartwig Adam, Pietro Perona, and Serge Belongie. The inaturalist species classification and detection dataset. In CVPR, pages 8769–8778, 2018.
  • Vaswani et al. (2017) Ashish Vaswani, Noam Shazeer, Niki Parmar, Jakob Uszkoreit, Llion Jones, Aidan N Gomez, Łukasz Kaiser, and Illia Polosukhin. Attention is all you need. In NeurIPS, pages 5998–6008, 2017.
  • Vedaldi et al. (2014) Andrea Vedaldi, Siddharth Mahendran, Stavros Tsogkas, Subhransu Maji, Ross Girshick, Juho Kannala, Esa Rahtu, Iasonas Kokkinos, Matthew B Blaschko, David Weiss, et al. Understanding objects in detail with fine-grained attributes. In CVPR, pages 3622–3629, 2014.
  • Vyas et al. (2020) Maunil R. Vyas, Hemanth Venkateswara, and Sethuraman Panchanathan. Leveraging seen and unseen semantic relationships for generative zero-shot learning. abs/2007.09549, 2020.
  • Wah et al. (2011) Catherine Wah, Steve Branson, Peter Welinder, Pietro Perona, and Serge Belongie. The caltech-ucsd birds-200-2011 dataset. 2011.
  • Wang et al. (2017) Bokun Wang, Yang Yang, Xing Xu, Alan Hanjalic, and Heng Tao Shen. Adversarial cross-modal retrieval. In ACM Multimedia, pages 154–162, 2017.
  • Wang et al. (2020a) Jiuniu Wang, Wenjia Xu, Qingzhong Wang, and Antoni B Chan. Compare and reweight: Distinctive image captioning using similar images sets. In ECCV, 2020a.
  • Wang et al. (2009) Josiah Wang, Katja Markert, and Mark Everingham. Learning models for object recognition from natural language descriptions. In BMVC, 2009.
  • Wang et al. (2020b) Qingzhong Wang, Jia Wan, and Antoni B. Chan. On diversity in image captioning: Metrics and methods. TPAMI, PP, 2020b.
  • Wang and Livescu (2016) Weiran Wang and Karen Livescu. Large-scale approximate kernel canonical correlation analysis. ICLR, 2016.
  • Williams et al. (2018) Adina Williams, Nikita Nangia, and Samuel Bowman. A broad-coverage challenge corpus for sentence understanding through inference. In Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long Papers), pages 1112–1122, 2018.
  • Xian et al. (2016) Yongqin Xian, Zeynep Akata, Gaurav Sharma, Quynh Nguyen, Matthias Hein, and Bernt Schiele. Latent embeddings for zero-shot classification. In CVPR, pages 69–77, 2016.
  • Xian et al. (2018a) Yongqin Xian, Christoph H Lampert, Bernt Schiele, and Zeynep Akata. Zero-shot learning—a comprehensive evaluation of the good, the bad and the ugly. TPAMI, 41(9):2251–2265, 2018a.
  • Xian et al. (2018b) Yongqin Xian, Tobias Lorenz, Bernt Schiele, and Zeynep Akata. Feature generating networks for zero-shot learning. In CVPR, pages 5542–5551, 2018b.
  • Xian et al. (2019) Yongqin Xian, Saurabh Sharma, Bernt Schiele, and Zeynep Akata. f-vaegan-d2: A feature generating framework for any-shot learning. In CVPR, pages 10275–10284, 2019.
  • Xu et al. (2015) Kelvin Xu, Jimmy Ba, Ryan Kiros, Kyunghyun Cho, Aaron Courville, Ruslan Salakhudinov, Rich Zemel, and Yoshua Bengio. Show, attend and tell: Neural image caption generation with visual attention. In ICML, pages 2048–2057, 2015.
  • Xu et al. (2016) Zhe Xu, Shaoli Huang, Ya Zhang, and Dacheng Tao. Webly-supervised fine-grained visual categorization via deep domain adaptation. TPAMI, 40(5):1100–1113, 2016.
  • Yilmaz et al. (2019) Zeynep Akkalyoncu Yilmaz, Wei Yang, Haotian Zhang, and Jimmy Lin. Cross-domain modeling of sentence-level evidence for document retrieval. In EMNLP-IJCNLP, pages 3481–3487, 2019.
  • Zhang et al. (2014) Ning Zhang, Jeff Donahue, Ross Girshick, and Trevor Darrell. Part-based r-cnns for fine-grained category detection. In ECCV, pages 834–849. Springer, 2014.
  • Zhen et al. (2019) Liangli Zhen, Peng Hu, Xu Wang, and Dezhong Peng. Deep supervised cross-modal retrieval. In Proc. CVPR, pages 10394–10403, 2019.
  • Zheng et al. (2017) Heliang Zheng, Jianlong Fu, Tao Mei, and Jiebo Luo.

    Learning multi-attention convolutional neural network for fine-grained image recognition.

    In ICCV, pages 5209–5217, 2017.
  • Zhu et al. (2018) Yizhe Zhu, Mohamed Elhoseiny, Bingchen Liu, Xi Peng, and Ahmed Elgammal. A generative adversarial approach for zero-shot learning from noisy texts. In CVPR, pages 1004–1013, 2018.