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The Complexity of Online Graph Games

by   Janosch Fuchs, et al.

Online computation is a concept to model uncertainty where not all information on a problem instance is known in advance. An online algorithm receives requests which reveal the instance piecewise and has to respond with irrevocable decisions. Often, an adversary is assumed that constructs the instance knowing the deterministic behavior of the algorithm. From a game theoretical point of view, the adversary and the online algorithm are players in a two-player game. By applying this view on combinatorial graph problems, especially on problems where the solution is a subset of the vertices, we analyze their complexity. For this, we introduce a framework based on gadget reductions from 3-Satisfiability and extend it to an online setting where the graph is a priori known by a map. This is done by identifying a set of rules for the reductions and providing schemes for gadgets. The extension of the framework to the online setting enable reductions from TQBF. We provide example reductions to the well-known problems Vertex Cover, Independent Set and Dominating Set and prove that they are PSPACE-complete. Thus, this paper establishes that the online version with a map of NP-complete graph problems form a large class of PSPACE-complete problems.


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