TagRec: Automated Tagging of Questions with Hierarchical Learning Taxonomy

by   Venktesh V, et al.

Online educational platforms organize academic questions based on a hierarchical learning taxonomy (subject-chapter-topic). Automatically tagging new questions with existing taxonomy will help organize these questions into different classes of hierarchical taxonomy so that they can be searched based on the facets like chapter. This task can be formulated as a flat multi-class classification problem. Usually, flat classification based methods ignore the semantic relatedness between the terms in the hierarchical taxonomy and the questions. Some traditional methods also suffer from the class imbalance issues as they consider only the leaf nodes ignoring the hierarchy. Hence, we formulate the problem as a similarity-based retrieval task where we optimize the semantic relatedness between the taxonomy and the questions. We demonstrate that our method helps to handle the unseen labels and hence can be used for taxonomy tagging in the wild. In this method, we augment the question with its corresponding answer to capture more semantic information and then align the question-answer pair's contextualized embedding with the corresponding label (taxonomy) vector representations. The representations are aligned by fine-tuning a transformer based model with a loss function that is a combination of the cosine similarity and hinge rank loss. The loss function maximizes the similarity between the question-answer pair and the correct label representations and minimizes the similarity to unrelated labels. Finally, we perform experiments on two real-world datasets. We show that the proposed learning method outperforms representations learned using the multi-class classification method and other state of the art methods by 6 Recall@k. We also demonstrate the performance of the proposed method on unseen but related learning content like the learning objectives without re-training the network.


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