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Synthetic Over-sampling for Imbalanced Node Classification with Graph Neural Networks

by   Tianxiang Zhao, et al.

In recent years, graph neural networks (GNNs) have achieved state-of-the-art performance for node classification. However, most existing GNNs would suffer from the graph imbalance problem. In many real-world scenarios, node classes are imbalanced, with some majority classes making up most parts of the graph. The message propagation mechanism in GNNs would further amplify the dominance of those majority classes, resulting in sub-optimal classification performance. In this work, we seek to address this problem by generating pseudo instances of minority classes to balance the training data, extending previous over-sampling-based techniques. This task is non-trivial, as those techniques are designed with the assumption that instances are independent. Neglection of relation information would complicate this oversampling process. Furthermore, the node classification task typically takes the semi-supervised setting with only a few labeled nodes, providing insufficient supervision for the generation of minority instances. Generated new nodes of low quality would harm the trained classifier. In this work, we address these difficulties by synthesizing new nodes in a constructed embedding space, which encodes both node attributes and topology information. Furthermore, an edge generator is trained simultaneously to model the graph structure and provide relations for new samples. To further improve the data efficiency, we also explore synthesizing mixed “in-between” nodes to utilize nodes from the majority class in this over-sampling process. Experiments on real-world datasets validate the effectiveness of our proposed framework.


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